Magit User Manual

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Magit User Manual

Magit is an interface to the version control system Git, implemented as an Emacs package. Magit aspires to be a complete Git porcelain. While we cannot (yet) claim that Magit wraps and improves upon each and every Git command, it is complete enough to allow even experienced Git users to perform almost all of their daily version control tasks directly from within Emacs. While many fine Git clients exist, only Magit and Git itself deserve to be called porcelains.

Copyright (C) 2015-2017 Jonas Bernoulli <jonas@bernoul.li>

You can redistribute this document and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This document is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.


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1 Introduction

Magit is an interface to the version control system Git, implemented as an Emacs package. Magit aspires to be a complete Git porcelain. While we cannot (yet) claim that Magit wraps and improves upon each and every Git command, it is complete enough to allow even experienced Git users to perform almost all of their daily version control tasks directly from within Emacs. While many fine Git clients exist, only Magit and Git itself deserve to be called porcelains.

Staging and otherwise applying changes is one of the most important features in a Git porcelain and here Magit outshines anything else, including Git itself. Git’s own staging interface (git add --patch) is so cumbersome that many users only use it in exceptional cases. In Magit staging a hunk or even just part of a hunk is as trivial as staging all changes made to a file.

The most visible part of Magit’s interface is the status buffer, which displays information about the current repository. Its content is created by running several Git commands and making their output actionable. Among other things, it displays information about the current branch, lists unpulled and unpushed changes and contains sections displaying the staged and unstaged changes. That might sound noisy, but, since sections are collapsible, it’s not.

To stage or unstage a change one places the cursor on the change and then types s or u. The change can be a file or a hunk, or when the region is active (i.e. when there is a selection) several files or hunks, or even just part of a hunk. The change or changes that these commands - and many others - would act on are highlighted.

Magit also implements several other "apply variants" in addition to staging and unstaging. One can discard or reverse a change, or apply it to the working tree. Git’s own porcelain only supports this for staging and unstaging and you would have to do something like git diff ... | ??? | git apply ... to discard, revert, or apply a single hunk on the command line. In fact that’s exactly what Magit does internally (which is what lead to the term "apply variants").

Magit isn’t just for Git experts, but it does assume some prior experience with Git as well as Emacs. That being said, many users have reported that using Magit was what finally taught them what Git is capable of and how to use it to its fullest. Other users wished they had switched to Emacs sooner so that they would have gotten their hands on Magit earlier.

While one has to know the basic features of Emacs to be able to make full use of Magit, acquiring just enough Emacs skills doesn’t take long and is worth it, even for users who prefer other editors. Vim users are advised to give Evil, the "Extensible VI Layer for Emacs", and Spacemacs, an "Emacs starter-kit focused on Evil" a try.

Magit provides a consistent and efficient Git porcelain. After a short learning period, you will be able to perform most of your daily version control tasks faster than you would on the command line. You will likely also start using features that seemed too daunting in the past.

Magit fully embraces Git. It exposes many advanced features using a simple but flexible interface instead of only wrapping the trivial ones like many GUI clients do. Of course Magit supports logging, cloning, pushing, and other commands that usually don’t fail in spectacular ways; but it also supports tasks that often cannot be completed in a single step. Magit fully supports tasks such as merging, rebasing, cherry-picking, reverting, and blaming by not only providing a command to initiate these tasks but also by displaying context sensitive information along the way and providing commands that are useful for resolving conflicts and resuming the sequence after doing so.

Magit wraps and in many cases improves upon at least the following Git porcelain commands: add, am, bisect, blame, branch, checkout, cherry, cherry-pick, clean, clone, commit, config, describe, diff, fetch, format-patch, init, log, merge, merge-tree, mv, notes, pull, rebase, reflog, remote, request-pull, reset, revert, rm, show, stash, submodule, subtree, tag, and worktree. Many more Magit porcelain commands are implemented on top of Git plumbing commands.


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2 Installation

Magit can be installed using Emacs’ package manager or manually from its development repository.


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2.1 Installing from an Elpa Archive

Magit is available from Melpa and Melpa-Stable. If you haven’t used Emacs’ package manager before, then it is high time you familiarize yourself with it by reading the documentation in the Emacs manual, see (emacs)Packages. Then add one of the archives to package-archives:

(require 'package)
(add-to-list 'package-archives
             '("melpa" . "http://melpa.org/packages/") t)
(require 'package)
(add-to-list 'package-archives
             '("melpa-stable" . "http://stable.melpa.org/packages/") t)

Once you have added your preferred archive, you need to update the local package list using:

M-x package-refresh-contents RET

Once you have done that, you can install Magit and its dependencies using:

M-x package-install RET magit RET

Now see Post-Installation Tasks.


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2.2 Installing from the Git Repository

Magit depends on the dash and with-editor library which are available from Melpa and Melpa-Stable. Install them using M-x package-install RET <package> RET. Of course you may also install them manually from their development repository, but I won’t cover that here.

(An older release of Magit is also available from Marmalade, but no new versions will be uploaded in the future. Marmalade’s maintainer has stopped responding to requests from package maintainers who are having difficulties or require him to create an account so that they can upload their packages in the first place.)

Then clone the Magit repository:

$ git clone https://github.com/magit/magit.git ~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/magit
$ cd ~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/magit

Then compile the libraries and generate the info manuals:

$ make

If you haven’t installed dash and with-editor using Elpa or at /path/to/magit/../<package>, then you have to tell make where to find them. To do so create /path/to/magit/config.mk with the following content before running make:

LOAD_PATH  = -L /path/to/magit/lisp
LOAD_PATH += -L /path/to/dash
LOAD_PATH += -L /path/to/with-editor

Finally add this to your init file:

(add-to-list 'load-path "~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/magit/lisp")
(require 'magit)

(with-eval-after-load 'info
  (info-initialize)
  (add-to-list 'Info-directory-list
               "~/.emacs.d/site-lisp/magit/Documentation/"))

Note that you have to add the lisp subdirectory to the load-path, not the top-level of the repository, and that elements of load-path should not end with a slash, while those of Info-directory-list should.

Instead of requiring the feature magit, you could load just the autoload definitions, by loading the file magit-autoloads.el.

(load "/path/to/magit/lisp/magit-autoloads")

Instead of running Magit directly from the repository by adding that to the load-path, you might want to instead install it in some other directory using sudo make install and setting load-path accordingly.

To update Magit use:

$ git pull
$ make

At times it might be necessary to run make clean all instead.

To view all available targets use make help.

Now see Post-Installation Tasks.


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2.3 Post-Installation Tasks

After installing Magit you should verify that you are indeed using the Magit, Git, and Emacs releases you think you are using. It’s best to restart Emacs before doing so, to make sure you are not using an outdated value for load-path.

M-x magit-version RET

should display something like

Magit 2.8.0, Git 2.10.2, Emacs 25.1.1, gnu/linux

Then you might also want to read about options that many users likely want to customize. See Essential Settings.

To be able to follow cross references to Git manpages found in this manual, you might also have to manually install the gitman info manual, or advice Info-follow-nearest-node to instead open the actual manpage. See How to install the gitman info manual?.

If you are completely new to Magit then see Getting Started.

If you run into problems, then please see the FAQ. Also see the Debugging Tools.

And last but not least please consider making a donation, to ensure that I can keep working on Magit. See https://magit.vc/donations. for various donation options.


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3 Getting Started

This short tutorial describes the most essential features that many Magitians use on a daily basis. It only scratches the surface but should be enough to get you started.

IMPORTANT: It is safest if you clone some repository just for this tutorial. Alternatively you can use an existing local repository, but if you do that, then you should commit all uncommitted changes before proceeding.

To display information about the current Git repository, type M-x magit-status RET. You will be using this command a lot, and should therefore give it a global key binding. This is what we recommend:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-x g") 'magit-status)

Most Magit commands are commonly invoked from the status buffer. It can be considered the primary interface for interacting with Git using Magit. Many other Magit buffers may exist at a given time, but they are often created from this buffer.

Depending on what state your repository is in, this buffer may contain sections titled "Staged changes", "Unstaged changes", "Unmerged into origin/master", "Unpushed to origin/master", and many others.

Since we are starting from a safe state, which you can easily return to (by doing a git reset --hard PRE-MAGIT-STATE), there currently are not staged or unstaged changes. Edit some files and save the changes. Then go back to the status buffer, while at the same time refreshing it, by typing C-x g. (When the status buffer, or any Magit buffer for that matter, is the current buffer, then you can also use just g to refresh it).

Move between sections using p and n. Note that the bodies of some sections are hidden. Type TAB to expand or collapse the section at point. You can also use C-tab to cycle the visibility of the current section and its children. Move to a file section inside the section named "Unstaged changes" and type s to stage the changes you have made to that file. That file now appears under "Staged changes".

Magit can stage and unstage individual hunks, not just complete files. Move to the file you have just staged, expand it using TAB, move to one of the hunks using n, and unstage just that by typing u. Note how the staging (s) and unstaging (u) commands operate on the change at point. Many other commands behave the same way.

You can also un-/stage just part of a hunk. Inside the body of a hunk section (move there using C-n), set the mark using C-SPC and move down until some added and/or removed lines fall inside the region but not all of them. Again type s to stage.

It is also possible to un-/stage multiple files at once. Move to a file section, type C-SPC, move to the next file using n, and then s to stage both files. Note that both the mark and point have to be on the headings of sibling sections for this to work. If the region looks like it does in other buffers, then it doesn’t select Magit sections that can be acted on as a unit.

And then of course you want to commit your changes. Type c. This shows the committing popup buffer featuring various commit variants and arguments that can be passed to git commit. Do not worry about those for now. We want to create a "normal" commit, which is done by typing c again.

Now two new buffers appear. One is for writing the commit message, the other shows a diff with the changes that you are about to committed. Write a message and then type C-c C-c to actually create the commit.

You probably don’t want to push the commit you just created because you just committed some random changes, but if that is not the case you could push it by typing P to bring up the push popup and then p to push to a branch with the same name as the local branch onto the remote configured as the push-remote. (If the push-remote is not configured yet, then you would first be prompted for the remote to push to.)

So far we have mentioned the commit, push, and log popups. These are probably among the popups you will be using the most, but many others exist. To show a popup that lists all other popups (as well as the various apply commands and some other fundamental commands), type h. Try a few.

The key bindings in that popup correspond to the bindings in Magit buffers, including but not limited to the status buffer. So you could type h d to bring up the diff popup, but once you remember that "d" stands for "diff", you would usually do so by just typing d. But the "popup of popups" is useful even once you have memorized all the bindings, as it can provide easy access to Magit commands from non-Magit buffers. You should create a global key binding for this command too:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-x M-g") 'magit-dispatch-popup)

In the same vein, you might also want to enable global-magit-file-mode to get some more Magit key bindings in regular file-visiting buffers (see Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files).

It is not necessary that you do so now, but if you stick with Magit, then it is highly recommended that you read the next section too.


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4 Interface Concepts


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4.1 Modes and Buffers

Magit provides several major-modes. For each of these modes there usually exists only one buffer per repository. Separate modes and thus buffers exist for commits, diffs, logs, and some other things.

Besides these special purpose buffers, there also exists an overview buffer, called the status buffer. Its usually from this buffer that the user invokes Git commands, or creates or visits other buffers.

In this manual we often speak about "Magit buffers". By that we mean buffers whose major-modes derive from magit-mode.

M-x magit-toggle-buffer-lock     (magit-toggle-buffer-lock)

This command locks the current buffer to its value or if the buffer is already locked, then it unlocks it.

Locking a buffer to its value prevents it from being reused to display another value. The name of a locked buffer contains its value, which allows telling it apart from other locked buffers and the unlocked buffer.

Not all Magit buffers can be locked to their values, for example it wouldn’t make sense to lock a status buffer.

There can only be a single unlocked buffer using a certain major-mode per repository. So when a buffer is being unlocked and another unlocked buffer already exists for that mode and repository, then the former buffer is instead deleted and the latter is displayed in its place.


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4.1.1 Switching Buffers

Function: magit-display-buffer buffer

This function is a wrapper around display-buffer and is used to display any Magit buffer. It displays BUFFER in some window and, unlike display-buffer, also selects that window, provided magit-display-buffer-noselect is nil. It also runs the hooks mentioned below.

Variable: magit-display-buffer-noselect

When this is non-nil, then magit-display-buffer only displays the buffer but forgoes also selecting the window. This variable should not be set globally, it is only intended to be let-bound, by code that automatically updates "the other window". This is used for example when the revision buffer is updated when you move inside the log buffer.

User Option: magit-display-buffer-function

The function specified here is called by magit-display-buffer with one argument, a buffer, to actually display that buffer. This function should call display-buffer with that buffer as first and a list of display actions as second argument.

Magit provides several functions, listed below, that are suitable values for this option. If you want to use different rules, then a good way of doing that is to start with a copy of one of these functions and then adjust it to your needs.

Instead of using a wrapper around display-buffer, that function itself can be used here, in which case the display actions have to be specified by adding them to display-buffer-alist instead.

To learn about display actions, see (elisp)Choosing a Window for Display.

Function: magit-display-buffer-traditional buffer

This function is the current default value of the option magit-display-buffer-function. Before that option and this function were added, the behavior was hard-coded in many places all over the code base but now all the rules are contained in this one function (except for the "noselect" special case mentioned above).

Function: magit-display-buffer-same-window-except-diff-v1

This function displays most buffers in the currently selected window. If a buffer’s mode derives from magit-diff-mode or magit-process-mode, it is displayed in another window.

Function: magit-display-buffer-fullframe-status-v1

This function fills the entire frame when displaying a status buffer. Otherwise, it behaves like magit-display-buffer-traditional.

Function: magit-display-buffer-fullframe-status-topleft-v1

This function fills the entire frame when displaying a status buffer. It behaves like magit-display-buffer-fullframe-status-v1 except that it displays buffers that derive from magit-diff-mode or magit-process-mode to the top or left of the current buffer rather than to the bottom or right. As a result, Magit buffers tend to pop up on the same side as they would if magit-display-buffer-traditional were in use.

Function: magit-display-buffer-fullcolumn-most-v1

This function displays most buffers so that they fill the entire height of the frame. However, the buffer is displayed in another window if 1) the buffer’s mode derives from magit-process-mode, or 2) the buffer’s mode derives from magit-diff-mode, provided that the mode of the current buffer derives from magit-log-mode or magit-cherry-mode.

User Option: magit-pre-display-buffer-hook

This hook is run by magit-display-buffer before displaying the buffer.

Function: magit-save-window-configuration

This function saves the current window configuration. Later when the buffer is buried, it may be restored by magit-restore-window-configuration.

User Option: magit-post-display-buffer-hook

This hook is run by magit-display-buffer after displaying the buffer.

Function: magit-maybe-set-dedicated

This function remembers if a new window had to be created to display the buffer, or whether an existing window was reused. This information is later used by magit-mode-quit-window, to determine whether the window should be deleted when its last Magit buffer is buried.


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4.1.2 Naming Buffers

User Option: magit-generate-buffer-name-function

The function used to generate the names of Magit buffers.

Such a function should take the options magit-uniquify-buffer-names as well as magit-buffer-name-format into account. If it doesn’t, then should be clearly stated in the doc-string. And if it supports %-sequences beyond those mentioned in the doc-string of the option magit-buffer-name-format, then its own doc-string should describe the additions.

Function: magit-generate-buffer-name-default-function mode

This function returns a buffer name suitable for a buffer whose major-mode is MODE and which shows information about the repository in which default-directory is located.

This function uses magit-buffer-name-format and supporting all of the %-sequences mentioned the documentation of that option. It also respects the option magit-uniquify-buffer-names.

User Option: magit-buffer-name-format

The format string used to name Magit buffers.

At least the following %-sequences are supported:

The value should always contain either %m or %M, %v or %V, and %t. If magit-uniquify-buffer-names is non-nil, then the value must end with %t.

User Option: magit-uniquify-buffer-names

This option controls whether the names of Magit buffers are uniquified. If the names are not being uniquified, then they contain the full path of the top-level of the working tree of the corresponding repository. If they are being uniquified, then they end with the basename of the top-level, or if that would conflict with the name used for other buffers, then the names of all these buffers are adjusted until they no longer conflict.

This is done using the uniquify package; customize its options to control how buffer names are uniquified.


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4.1.3 Quitting Windows

q     (magit-mode-bury-buffer)

This command buries the current Magit buffer. With a prefix argument, it instead kills the buffer.

User Option: magit-bury-buffer-function

The function used to actually bury or kill the current buffer.

magit-mode-bury-buffer calls this function with one argument. If the argument is non-nil, then the function has to kill the current buffer. Otherwise it has to bury it alive. The default value currently is magit-restore-window-configuration.

Function: magit-restore-window-configuration kill-buffer

Bury or kill the current buffer using quit-window, which is called with KILL-BUFFER as first and the selected window as second argument.

Then restore the window configuration that existed right before the current buffer was displayed in the selected frame. Unfortunately that also means that point gets adjusted in all the buffers, which are being displayed in the selected frame.

Function: magit-mode-quit-window kill-buffer

Bury or kill the current buffer using quit-window, which is called with KILL-BUFFER as first and the selected window as second argument.

Then, if the window was originally created to display a Magit buffer and the buried buffer was the last remaining Magit buffer that was ever displayed in the window, then that is deleted.


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4.1.4 Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers

After running a command which may change the state of the current repository, the current Magit buffer and the corresponding status buffer are refreshed. The status buffer may optionally be automatically refreshed whenever a buffer is saved to a file inside the respective repository.

Automatically refreshing Magit buffers ensures that the displayed information is up-to-date most of the time but can lead to a noticeable delay in big repositories. Other Magit buffers are not refreshed to keep the delay to a minimum and also because doing so can sometimes be undesirable.

Buffers can also be refreshed explicitly, which is useful in buffers that weren’t current during the last refresh and after changes were made to the repository outside of Magit.

g     (magit-refresh)

This command refreshes the current buffer if its major mode derives from magit-mode as well as the corresponding status buffer.

If the option magit-revert-buffers calls for it, then it also reverts all unmodified buffers that visit files being tracked in the current repository.

G     (magit-refresh-all)

This command refreshes all Magit buffers belonging to the current repository and also reverts all unmodified buffers that visit files being tracked in the current repository.

The file-visiting buffers are always reverted, even if magit-revert-buffers is nil.

User Option: magit-refresh-buffer-hook

This hook is run in each Magit buffer that was refreshed during the current refresh - normally the current buffer and the status buffer.

User Option: magit-refresh-status-buffer

When this option is non-nil, then the status buffer is automatically refreshed after running git for side-effects, in addition to the current Magit buffer, which is always refreshed automatically.

Only set this to nil after exhausting all other options to improve performance.

Function: magit-after-save-refresh-status

This function is intended to be added to after-save-hook. After doing that the corresponding status buffer is refreshed whenever a buffer is saved to a file inside a repository.

Note that refreshing a Magit buffer is done by re-creating its contents from scratch, which can be slow in large repositories. If you are not satisfied with Magit’s performance, then you should obviously not add this function to that hook.


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4.1.5 Automatic Saving of File-Visiting Buffers

File-visiting buffers are by default saved at certain points in time. This doesn’t guarantee that Magit buffers are always up-to-date, but, provided one only edits files by editing them in Emacs and uses only Magit to interact with Git, one can be fairly confident. When in doubt or after outside changes, type g (magit-refresh) to save and refresh explicitly.

User Option: magit-save-repository-buffers

This option controls whether file-visiting buffers are saved before certain events.

If this is non-nil then all modified file-visiting buffers belonging to the current repository may be saved before running commands, before creating new Magit buffers, and before explicitly refreshing such buffers. If this is dontask then this is done without user intervention. If it is t then the user has to confirm each save.


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4.1.6 Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers

By default Magit automatically reverts buffers that are visiting files that are being tracked in a Git repository, after they have changed on disk. When using Magit one often changes files on disk by running git, i.e. "outside Emacs", making this a rather important feature.

For example, if you discard a change in the status buffer, then that is done by running git apply --reverse ..., and Emacs considers the file to have "changed on disk". If Magit did not automatically revert the buffer, then you would have to type M-x revert-buffer RET RET in the visiting buffer before you could continue making changes.

User Option: magit-auto-revert-mode

When this mode is enabled, then buffers that visit tracked files, are automatically reverted after the visited files changed on disk.

User Option: global-auto-revert-mode

When this mode is enabled, then any file-visiting buffer is automatically reverted after the visited file changed on disk.

If you like buffers that visit tracked files to be automatically reverted, then you might also like any buffer to be reverted, not just those visiting tracked files. If that is the case, then enable this mode instead of magit-auto-revert-mode.

User Option: magit-auto-revert-immediately

This option controls whether Magit reverts buffers immediately.

If this is non-nil and either global-auto-revert-mode or magit-auto-revert-mode is enabled, then Magit immediately reverts buffers by explicitly calling auto-revert-buffers after running git for side-effects.

If auto-revert-use-notify is non-nil (and file notifications are actually supported), then magit-auto-revert-immediately does not have to be non-nil, because the reverts happen immediately anyway.

If magit-auto-revert-immediately and auto-revert-use-notify are both nil, then reverts happen after auto-revert-interval seconds of user inactivity. That is not desirable.

User Option: auto-revert-use-notify

This option controls whether file notification functions should be used. Note that this variable unfortunately defaults to t even on systems on which file notifications cannot be used.

User Option: magit-auto-revert-tracked-only

This option controls whether magit-auto-revert-mode only reverts tracked files or all files that are located inside Git repositories, including untracked files and files located inside Git’s control directory.

Command: auto-revert-mode

The global mode magit-auto-revert-mode works by turning on this local mode in the appropriate buffers (but global-auto-revert-mode is implemented differently). You can also turn it on or off manually, which might be necessary if Magit does not notice that a previously untracked file now is being tracked or vice-versa.

User Option: auto-revert-stop-on-user-input

This option controls whether the arrival of user input suspends the automatic reverts for auto-revert-interval seconds.

User Option: auto-revert-interval

This option controls for how many seconds Emacs waits before resuming suspended reverts.

User Option: auto-revert-buffer-list-filter

This option specifies an additional filter used by auto-revert-buffers to determine whether a buffer should be reverted or not.

This option is provided by magit, which also redefines auto-revert-buffers to respect it. Magit users who do not turn on the local mode auto-revert-mode themselves, are best served by setting the value to magit-auto-revert-repository-buffers-p.

However the default is nil, to not disturb users who do use the local mode directly. If you experience delays when running Magit commands, then you should consider using one of the predicates provided by Magit - especially if you also use Tramp.

Users who do turn on auto-revert-mode in buffers in which Magit doesn’t do that for them, should likely not use any filter. Users who turn on global-auto-revert-mode, do not have to worry about this option, because it is disregarded if the global mode is enabled.

User Option: auto-revert-verbose

This option controls whether Emacs reports when a buffer has been reverted.

The options with the auto-revert- prefix are located in the Custom group named auto-revert. The other, magit-specific, options are located in the magit group.


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Risk of Reverting Automatically

For the vast majority users automatically reverting file-visiting buffers after they have changed on disk is harmless.

If a buffer is modified (i.e. it contains changes that haven’t been saved yet), then Emacs would refuse to automatically revert it. If you save a previously modified buffer, then that results in what is seen by Git as an uncommitted change. Git would then refuse to carry out any commands that would cause these changes to be lost. In other words, if there is anything that could be lost, then either Git or Emacs would refuse to discard the changes.

However if you do use file-visiting buffers as a sort of ad hoc "staging area", then the automatic reverts could potentially cause data loss. So far I have only heard from one user who uses such a workflow.

An example: You visit some file in a buffer, edit it, and save the changes. Then, outside of Emacs (or at least not using Magit or by saving the buffer) you change the file on disk again. At this point the buffer is the only place where the intermediate version still exists. You have saved the changes to disk, but that has since been overwritten. Meanwhile Emacs considers the buffer to be unmodified (because you have not made any changes to it since you last saved it to the visited file) and therefore would not object to it being automatically reverted. At this point an Auto-Revert mode would kick in. It would check whether the buffer is modified and since that is not the case it would revert it. The intermediate version would be lost. (Actually you could still get it back using the undo command.)

If your workflow depends on Emacs preserving the intermediate version in the buffer, then you have to disable all Auto-Revert modes. But please consider that such a workflow would be dangerous even without using an Auto-Revert mode, and should therefore be avoided. If Emacs crashed or if you quit Emacs by mistake, then you would also lose the buffer content. There would be no autosave file still containing the intermediate version (because that was deleted when you saved the buffer) and you would not be asked whether you want to save the buffer (because it isn’t modified).


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4.2 Sections

Magit buffers are organized into nested sections, which can be collapsed and expanded, similar to how sections are handled in Org mode. Each section also has a type, and some sections also have a value. For each section type there can also be a local keymap, shared by all sections of that type.

Taking advantage of the section value and type, many commands operate on the current section, or when the region is active and selects sections of the same type, all of the selected sections. Commands that only make sense for a particular section type (as opposed to just behaving differently depending on the type) are usually bound in section type keymaps.


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4.2.1 Section Movement

To move within a section use the usual keys (C-p, C-n, C-b, C-f etc), whose global bindings are not shadowed. To move to another section use the following commands.

p     (magit-section-backward)

When not at the beginning of a section, then move to the beginning of the current section. At the beginning of a section, instead move to the beginning of the previous visible section.

n     (magit-section-forward)

Move to the beginning of the next visible section.

M-p     (magit-section-backward-siblings)

Move to the beginning of the previous sibling section. If there is no previous sibling section, then move to the parent section instead.

M-n     (magit-section-forward-siblings)

Move to the beginning of the next sibling section. If there is no next sibling section, then move to the parent section instead.

^     (magit-section-up)

Move to the beginning of the parent of the current section.

The above commands all call the hook magit-section-movement-hook. And, except for the second, the below functions are all members of that hook’s default value.

Variable: magit-section-movement-hook

This hook is run by all of the above movement commands, after arriving at the destination.

Function: magit-hunk-set-window-start

This hook function ensures that the beginning of the current section is visible, provided it is a hunk section. Otherwise, it does nothing.

Function: magit-section-set-window-start

This hook function ensures that the beginning of the current section is visible, regardless of the section’s type. If you add this to magit-section-movement-hook, then you must remove the hunk-only variant in turn.

Function: magit-log-maybe-show-more-commits

This hook function only has an effect in log buffers, and point is on the "show more" section. If that is the case, then it doubles the number of commits that are being shown.

Function: magit-log-maybe-update-revision-buffer

When moving inside a log buffer, then this function updates the revision buffer, provided it is already being displayed in another window of the same frame.

Function: magit-log-maybe-update-blob-buffer

When moving inside a log buffer and another window of the same frame displays a blob buffer, then this function instead displays the blob buffer for the commit at point in that window.

Function: magit-status-maybe-update-revision-buffer

When moving inside a status buffer, then this function updates the revision buffer, provided it is already being displayed in another window of the same frame.

Function: magit-status-maybe-update-blob-buffer

When moving inside a status buffer and another window of the same frame displays a blob buffer, then this function instead displays the blob buffer for the commit at point in that window.

User Option: magit-update-other-window-delay

Delay before automatically updating the other window.

When moving around in certain buffers certain other buffers, which are being displayed in another window, may optionally be updated to display information about the section at point.

When holding down a key to move by more than just one section, then that would update that buffer for each section on the way. To prevent that, updating the revision buffer is delayed, and this option controls for how long. For optimal experience you might have to adjust this delay and/or the keyboard repeat rate and delay of your graphical environment or operating system.


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4.2.2 Section Visibility

Magit provides many commands for changing the visibility of sections, but all you need to get started are the next two.

TAB     (magit-section-toggle)

Toggle the visibility of the body of the current section.

C-<tab>     (magit-section-cycle)

Cycle the visibility of current section and its children.

M-<tab>     (magit-section-cycle-diffs)

Cycle the visibility of diff-related sections in the current buffer.

S-<tab>     (magit-section-cycle-global)

Cycle the visibility of all sections in the current buffer.

1     (magit-section-show-level-1)
2     (magit-section-show-level-2)
3     (magit-section-show-level-3)
4     (magit-section-show-level-4)

Show sections surrounding the current section up to level N.

M-1     (magit-section-show-level-1-all)
M-2     (magit-section-show-level-2-all)
M-3     (magit-section-show-level-3-all)
M-4     (magit-section-show-level-4-all)

Show all sections up to level N.

Some functions, which are used to implement the above commands, are also exposed as commands themselves. By default no keys are bound to these commands, as they are generally perceived to be much less useful. But your mileage may vary.

Command: magit-section-show

Show the body of the current section.

Command: magit-section-hide

Hide the body of the current section.

Command: magit-section-show-headings

Recursively show headings of children of the current section. Only show the headings. Previously shown text-only bodies are hidden.

Command: magit-section-show-children

Recursively show the bodies of children of the current section. With a prefix argument show children down to the level of the current section, and hide deeper children.

Command: magit-section-hide-children

Recursively hide the bodies of children of the current section.

Command: magit-section-toggle-children

Toggle visibility of bodies of children of the current section.

When a buffer is first created then some sections are shown expanded while others are not. This is hard coded. When a buffer is refreshed then the previous visibility is preserved. The initial visibility of certain sections can also be overwritten using the hook magit-section-set-visibility-hook.

Variable: magit-section-set-visibility-hook

This hook is run when first creating a buffer and also when refreshing an existing buffer, and is used to determine the visibility of the section currently being inserted.

Each function is called with one argument, the section being inserted. It should return hide or show, or to leave the visibility undefined nil. If no function decides on the visibility and the buffer is being refreshed, then the visibility is preserved; or if the buffer is being created, then the hard coded default is used.

Usually this should only be used to set the initial visibility but not during refreshes. If magit-insert-section--oldroot is non-nil, then the buffer is being refreshed and these functions should immediately return nil.


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4.2.3 Section Hooks

Which sections are inserted into certain buffers is controlled with hooks. This includes the status and the refs buffers. For other buffers, e.g. log, diff, and revision buffers, this is not possible.

For buffers whose sections can be customized by the user, a hook variable called magit-TYPE-sections-hook exists. This hook should be changed using magit-add-section-hook. Avoid using add-hooks or the Custom interface.

The various available section hook variables are described later in this manual along with the appropriate "section inserter functions".

Function: magit-add-section-hook hook function &optional at append local

Add the function FUNCTION to the value of section hook HOOK.

Add FUNCTION at the beginning of the hook list unless optional APPEND is non-nil, in which case FUNCTION is added at the end. If FUNCTION already is a member then move it to the new location.

If optional AT is non-nil and a member of the hook list, then add FUNCTION next to that instead. Add before or after AT, or replace AT with FUNCTION depending on APPEND. If APPEND is the symbol replace, then replace AT with FUNCTION. For any other non-nil value place FUNCTION right after AT. If nil, then place FUNCTION right before AT. If FUNCTION already is a member of the list but AT is not, then leave FUNCTION where ever it already is.

If optional LOCAL is non-nil, then modify the hook’s buffer-local value rather than its global value. This makes the hook local by copying the default value. That copy is then modified.

HOOK should be a symbol. If HOOK is void, it is first set to nil. HOOK’s value must not be a single hook function. FUNCTION should be a function that takes no arguments and inserts one or multiple sections at point, moving point forward. FUNCTION may choose not to insert its section(s), when doing so would not make sense. It should not be abused for other side-effects.

To remove a function from a section hook, use remove-hook.


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4.2.4 Section Types and Values

Each section has a type, for example hunk, file, and commit. Instances of certain section types also have a value. The value of a section of type file, for example, is a file name.

Users usually do not have to worry about a section’s type and value, but knowing them can be handy at times.

M-x magit-describe-section     (magit-describe-section)

Show information about the section at point in the echo area, as "VALUE [TYPE PARENT-TYPE…] BEGINNING-END".

Many commands behave differently depending on the type of the section at point and/or somehow consume the value of that section. But that is only one of the reasons why the same key may do something different, depending on what section is current.

Additionally for each section type a keymap might be defined, named magit-TYPE-section-map. That keymap is used as text property keymap of all text belonging to any section of the respective type. If such a map does not exist for a certain type, then you can define it yourself, and it will automatically be used.


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4.2.5 Section Options

This section describes options that have an effect on more than just a certain type of sections. As you can see there are not many of those.

User Option: magit-section-show-child-count

Whether to append the number of children to section headings. This only affects sections that could benefit from this information.


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4.3 Popup Buffers and Prefix Commands

Many Magit commands are implemented using popup buffers. First the user invokes a popup or prefix command, which causes a popup buffer with the available infix arguments and suffix commands to be displayed. The user then optionally toggles/sets some arguments and finally invokes one of the suffix commands.

This is implemented in the library magit-popup. Earlier releases used the library magit-key-mode. A future release will switch to a yet-to-be-written successor, which will likely be named transient.

Because magit-popup can also be used by other packages without having to depend on all of Magit, it is documented in its own manual. See (magit-popup)Top.

C-c C-c     (magit-dispatch-popup)

This popup command shows a buffer featuring all other Magit popup commands as well as some other commands that are not popup commands themselves.

This command is also, or especially, useful outside Magit buffers, so you should setup a global binding:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-x M-g") 'magit-dispatch-popup)

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4.4 Completion and Confirmation

Many commands read a value from the user. By default this is done using the built-in function completing-read, but Magit can instead use another completion framework.

User Option: magit-completing-read-function

The value of this variable is the function used to perform completion. Because functions intended to replace completing-read often are not fully compatible drop-in replacements, and also because Magit expects them to add the default choice to the prompt themselves, such functions should not be used directly. Instead a wrapper function has to be used.

Currently only the real completing-read and Ido are fully supported. More frameworks will be supported in the future.

Function: magit-builtin-completing-read prompt choices &optional predicate require-match initial-input hist def

Perform completion using completion-read.

Function: magit-ido-completing-read prompt choices &optional predicate require-match initial-input hist def

Perform completion using ido-completing-read+ from the package by the same name (which you have to explicitly install). Ido itself comes with a supposed drop-in replacement ido-completing-read, but that has too many deficits to serve our needs.

User Option: magit-list-refs-sortby

For many commands that read a ref or refs from the user, the value of this option can be used to control the order of the refs. Valid values include any key accepted by the --sort flag of git for-each-ref. By default, refs are sorted alphabetically by their full name (e.g., "refs/heads/master").

By default many commands that could potentially lead to data loss have to be confirmed. This includes many very common commands, so this can become annoying quickly. Many of these actions can be undone, provided magit-wip-before-change-mode is turned on (which it is not by default, due to performance concerns).

User Option: magit-no-confirm

The value of this option is a list of symbols, representing commands which do not have to be confirmed by the user before being carried out.

When the global mode magit-wip-before-change-mode is enabled then many commands can be undone. If that mode is enabled then adding safe-with-wip to this list has the same effect as adding discard, reverse, stage-all-changes, and unstage-all-changes.

(add-to-list 'magit-no-confirm 'safe-with-wip)

For a list of all symbols that can be added to the value of this variable, see the doc-string.

Note that there are commands that ignore this option and always require confirmation, or which can be told not to do so using another dedicated option. Also most commands, when acting on multiple sections at once always, require confirmation, even when they do respect this option when acting on a single section.


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4.5 Running Git


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4.5.1 Viewing Git Output

Magit runs Git either for side-effects (e.g. when pushing) or to get some value (e.g. the name of the current branch). When Git is run for side-effects then the output goes into a per-repository log buffer, which can be consulted when things don’t go as expected.

$     (magit-process)

This commands displays the process buffer for the current repository.

Inside that buffer, the usual key bindings for navigating and showing sections are available. There is one additional command.

k     (magit-process-kill)

This command kills the process represented by the section at point.

User Option: magit-git-debug

When this is non-nil then the output of all calls to git are logged in the process buffer. This is useful when debugging, otherwise it just negatively affects performance.


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4.5.2 Running Git Manually

While Magit provides many Emacs commands to interact with Git, it does not cover everything. In those cases your existing Git knowledge will come in handy. Magit provides some commands for running arbitrary Git commands by typing them into the minibuffer, instead of having to switch to a shell.

!     (magit-run-popup)

Shows the popup buffer featuring the below suffix commands.

! !     (magit-git-command-topdir)

This command reads a command from the user and executes it in the top-level directory of the current working tree.

The string "git " is used as initial input when prompting the user for the command. It can be removed to run another command.

! p     (magit-git-command)

This command reads a command from the user and executes it in default-directory. With a prefix argument the command is executed in the top-level directory of the current working tree instead.

The string "git " is used as initial input when prompting the user for the command. It can be removed to run another command.

! s     (magit-shell-command-topdir)

This command reads a command from the user and executes it in the top-level directory of the current working tree.

! S     (magit-shell-command)

This command reads a command from the user and executes it in default-directory. With a prefix argument the command is executed in the top-level directory of the current working tree instead.

User Option: magit-shell-command-verbose-prompt

Whether the prompt, used by the the above commands when reading a shell command, shows the directory in which it will be run.

These suffix commands start external gui tools.

! k     (magit-run-gitk)

This command runs gitk in the current repository.

! a     (magit-run-gitk-all)

This command runs gitk --all in the current repository.

! b     (magit-run-gitk-branches)

This command runs gitk --branches in the current repository.

! g     (magit-run-git-gui)

This command runs git gui in the current repository.


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4.5.3 Git Executable

Except on MS Windows, Magit defaults to running Git without specifying the path to the git executable. Instead the first executable found by Emacs on exec-path is used (whose value in turn is set based on the value of the environment variable $PATH when Emacs was started).

This has the advantage that it continues to work even when using Tramp to connect to a remote machine on which the executable is found in a different place. The downside is that if you have multiple versions of Git installed, then you might end up using another version than the one you think you are using.

M-x magit-version     (magit-version)

This command shows the currently used versions of Magit, Git, and Emacs in the echo area. Non-interactively this just returns the Magit version.

When the system-type is windows-nt, then magit-git-executable is set to an absolute path when Magit is first loaded. This is necessary because Git on that platform comes with several wrapper scripts for the actual git binary, which are also placed on $PATH, and using one of these wrappers instead of the binary would degrade performance horribly.

If Magit doesn’t find the correct executable then you can work around that by setting magit-git-executable to an absolute path. But note that doing so is a kludge. It is better to make sure the order in the environment variable $PATH is correct, and that Emacs is started with that environment in effect. The command magit-debug-git-executable can be useful to find out where Emacs is searching for git. If you have to connect from Windows to a non-Windows machine, then you must change the value to "git".

User Option: magit-git-executable

The git executable used by Magit, either the full path to the executable or the string "git" to let Emacs find the executable itself, using the standard mechanism for doing such things.

M-x magit-debug-git-executable     (magit-debug-git-executable)

Display a buffer with information about magit-git-executable.


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4.5.4 Global Git Arguments

User Option: magit-git-global-arguments

The arguments set here are used every time the git executable is run as a subprocess. They are placed right after the executable itself and before the git command - as in git HERE... COMMAND REST. For valid arguments see the git(1) manpage.

Be careful what you add here, especially if you are using Tramp to connect to servers with ancient Git versions. Never remove anything that is part of the default value, unless you really know what you are doing. And think very hard before adding something; it will be used every time Magit runs Git for any purpose.


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5 Inspecting

The functionality provided by Magit can be roughly divided into three groups: inspecting existing data, manipulating existing data or adding new data, and transferring data. Of course that is a rather crude distinction that often falls short, but it’s more useful than no distinction at all. This section is concerned with inspecting data, the next two with manipulating and transferring it. Then follows a section about miscellaneous functionality, which cannot easily be fit into this distinction.

Of course other distinctions make sense too, e.g. Git’s distinction between porcelain and plumbing commands, which for the most part is equivalent to Emacs’ distinction between interactive commands and non-interactive functions. All of the sections mentioned before are mainly concerned with the porcelain – Magit’s plumbing layer is described later.


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5.1 Status Buffer

While other Magit buffers contain e.g. one particular diff or one particular log, the status buffer contains the diffs for staged and unstaged changes, logs for unpushed and unpulled commits, lists of stashes and untracked files, and information related to the current branch.

During certain incomplete operations – for example when a merge resulted in a conflict – additional information is displayed that helps proceeding with or aborting the operation.

The command magit-status displays the status buffer belonging to the current repository in another window. This command is used so often that it should be bound globally. We recommend using C-x g:

(global-set-key (kbd "C-x g") 'magit-status)
C-x g     (magit-status)

Show the status of the current Git repository in a buffer. With a prefix argument prompt for a repository to be shown. With two prefix arguments prompt for an arbitrary directory. If that directory isn’t the root of an existing repository, then offer to initialize it as a new repository.

User Option: magit-repository-directories

List of directories that are or contain Git repositories. Each element has the form (DIRECTORY . DEPTH) or, for backward compatibility, just DIRECTORY. DIRECTORY has to be a directory or a directory file-name, a string. DEPTH, an integer, specifies the maximum depth to look for Git repositories. If it is 0, then only add DIRECTORY itself. For elements that are strings, the value of option magit-repository-directories-depth specifies the depth.

User Option: magit-repository-directories-depth

The maximum depth to look for Git repositories. This option is obsolete and only used for elements of the option magit-repository-directories (which see) that don’t specify the depth directly.

Command: ido-enter-magit-status

From an Ido prompt used to open a file, instead drop into magit-status. This is similar to ido-magic-delete-char, which, despite its name, usually causes a Dired buffer to be created.

To make this command available, use something like:

(add-hook 'ido-setup-hook
          (lambda ()
            (define-key ido-completion-map
              (kbd \"C-x g\") 'ido-enter-magit-status)))

Starting with Emacs 25.1 the Ido keymaps are defined just once instead of every time Ido is invoked, so now you can modify it like pretty much every other keymap:

(define-key ido-common-completion-map
  (kbd \"C-x g\") 'ido-enter-magit-status)

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5.1.1 Status Sections

The contents of status buffers is controlled using the hook magit-status-sections-hook. See Section Hooks to learn about such hooks and how to customize them.

User Option: magit-status-sections-hook

Hook run to insert sections into a status buffer.

The first function on that hook by default is magit-insert-status-headers; it is described in the next section. By default the following functions are also members of that hook:

Function: magit-insert-merge-log

Insert section for the on-going merge. Display the heads that are being merged. If no merge is in progress, do nothing.

Function: magit-insert-rebase-sequence

Insert section for the on-going rebase sequence. If no such sequence is in progress, do nothing.

Function: magit-insert-am-sequence

Insert section for the on-going patch applying sequence. If no such sequence is in progress, do nothing.

Function: magit-insert-sequencer-sequence

Insert section for the on-going cherry-pick or revert sequence. If no such sequence is in progress, do nothing.

Function: magit-insert-bisect-output

While bisecting, insert section with output from git bisect.

Function: magit-insert-bisect-rest

While bisecting, insert section visualizing the bisect state.

Function: magit-insert-bisect-log

While bisecting, insert section logging bisect progress.

Function: magit-insert-untracked-files

Maybe insert a list or tree of untracked files.

Do so depending on the value of status.showUntrackedFiles. Note that even if the value is all, Magit still initially only shows directories. But the directory sections can then be expanded using TAB.

Function: magit-insert-unstaged-changes

Insert section showing unstaged changes.

Function: magit-insert-staged-changes

Insert section showing staged changes.

Function: magit-insert-stashes &optional ref heading

Insert the stashes section showing reflog for "refs/stash". If optional REF is non-nil show reflog for that instead. If optional HEADING is non-nil use that as section heading instead of "Stashes:".

Function: magit-insert-unpulled-from-upstream

Insert section showing commits that haven’t been pulled from the upstream branch yet.

Function: magit-insert-unpulled-from-pushremote

Insert section showing commits that haven’t been pulled from the push-remote branch yet.

Function: magit-insert-unpushed-to-upstream

Insert section showing commits that haven’t been pushed to the upstream yet.

Function: magit-insert-unpushed-to-pushremote

Insert section showing commits that haven’t been pushed to the push-remote yet.

The following functions can also be added to the above hook:

Function: magit-insert-tracked-files

Insert a tree of tracked files.

Function: magit-insert-unpulled-or-recent-commits

Insert section showing unpulled or recent commits. If an upstream is configured for the current branch and it is ahead of the current branch, then show the missing commits. Otherwise, show the last magit-log-section-commit-count commits.

Function: magit-insert-recent-commits

Insert section showing the last magit-log-section-commit-count commits.

User Option: magit-log-section-commit-count

How many recent commits magit-insert-recent-commits and magit-insert-unpulled-or-recent-commits (provided there are no unpulled commits) show.

Function: magit-insert-modules-unpulled-from-upstream

Insert sections for modules that haven’t been pulled from the upstream yet. These sections can be expanded to show the respective commits.

Function: magit-insert-modules-unpulled-from-pushremote

Insert sections for modules that haven’t been pulled from the push-remote yet. These sections can be expanded to show the respective commits.

Function: magit-insert-modules-unpushed-to-upstream

Insert sections for modules that haven’t been pushed to the upstream yet. These sections can be expanded to show the respective commits.

Function: magit-insert-modules-unpushed-to-pushremote

Insert sections for modules that haven’t been pushed to the push-remote yet. These sections can be expanded to show the respective commits.

Function: magit-insert-submodules

Insert sections for all submodules. For each section insert the path, the branch, and the output of git describe --tags.

Press RET on such a submodule section to show its own status buffer. Press RET on the "Modules" section to display a list of submodules in a separate buffer. This shows additional information not displayed in the super-repository’s status buffer.

Function: magit-insert-unpulled-cherries

Insert section showing unpulled commits. Like magit-insert-unpulled-commits but prefix each commit that has not been applied yet (i.e. a commit with a patch-id not shared with any local commit) with "+", and all others with "-".

Function: magit-insert-unpushed-cherries

Insert section showing unpushed commits. Like magit-insert-unpushed-commits but prefix each commit which has not been applied to upstream yet (i.e. a commit with a patch-id not shared with any upstream commit) with "+" and all others with "-".

See References Buffer for some more section inserters, which could be used here.


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5.1.2 Status Header Sections

The contents of status buffers is controlled using the hook magit-status-sections-hook, as described in the previous section. By default magit-insert-status-headers is the first member of that hook variable.

Function: magit-insert-status-headers

Insert headers sections appropriate for magit-status-mode buffers. The sections are inserted by running the functions on the hook magit-status-headers-hook.

User Option: magit-status-headers-hook

Hook run to insert headers sections into the status buffer.

This hook is run by magit-insert-status-headers, which in turn has to be a member of magit-status-sections-hook to be used at all.

By default the following functions are members of the above hook:

Function: magit-insert-error-header

Insert a header line showing the message about the Git error that just occurred.

This function is only aware of the last error that occur when Git was run for side-effects. If, for example, an error occurs while generating a diff, then that error won’t be inserted. Refreshing the status buffer causes this section to disappear again.

Function: magit-insert-diff-filter-header

Insert a header line showing the effective diff filters.

Function: magit-insert-head-branch-header

Insert a header line about the current branch or detached HEAD.

Function: magit-insert-upstream-branch-header

Insert a header line about the branch that is usually pulled into the current branch.

Function: magit-insert-push-branch-header

Insert a header line about the branch that the current branch is usually pushed to.

Function: magit-insert-tags-header

Insert a header line about the current and/or next tag.

The following functions can also be added to the above hook:

Function: magit-insert-repo-header

Insert a header line showing the path to the repository top-level.

Function: magit-insert-remote-header

Insert a header line about the remote of the current branch.

If no remote is configured for the current branch, then fall back showing the "origin" remote, or if that does not exist the first remote in alphabetic order.

Function: magit-insert-user-header

Insert a header line about the current user.


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5.1.3 Status Options

User Option: magit-status-refresh-hook

Hook run after a status buffer has been refreshed.

User Option: magit-status-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in Magit-Status mode buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).

User Option: magit-log-section-args

Additional Git arguments used when creating log sections. Only --graph, --decorate, and --show-signature are supported. This option is only a temporary kludge and will be removed.

Note that due to an issue in Git the use of --graph is very slow with long histories, so you probably don’t want to add this here.

Also see the proceeding section for more options concerning status buffers.


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5.2 Repository List

Command: magit-list-repositories

This command displays a list of repositories in a separate buffer.

The options magit-repository-directories and magit-repository-directories-depth control which repositories are displayed.

User Option: magit-repolist-columns

This option controls what columns are displayed by the command magit-list-repositories and how they are displayed.

Each element has the form (HEADER WIDTH FORMAT PROPS).

HEADER is the string displayed in the header. WIDTH is the width of the column. FORMAT is a function that is called with one argument, the repository identification (usually its basename), and with default-directory bound to the toplevel of its working tree. It has to return a string to be inserted or nil. PROPS is an alist that supports the keys :right-align and :pad-right.

The following functions can be added to the above option:

Function: magit-repolist-column-ident

This function inserts the identification of the repository. Usually this is just its basename.

Function: magit-repolist-column-path

This function inserts the absolute path of the repository.

Function: magit-repolist-column-version

This function inserts a description of the repository’s HEAD revision.

Function: magit-repolist-column-unpulled-from-upstream

This function inserts the number of upstream commits not in the current branch.

Function: magit-repolist-column-unpulled-from-pushremote

This function inserts the number of commits in the push branch but not the current branch.

Function: magit-repolist-column-unpushed-to-upstream

This function inserts the number of commits in the current branch but not its upstream.

Function: magit-repolist-column-unpushed-to-pushremote

This function inserts the number of commits in the current branch but not its push branch.


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5.3 Logging

The status buffer contains logs for the unpushed and unpulled commits, but that obviously isn’t enough. The prefix command magit-log-popup, on l, features several suffix commands, which show a specific log in a separate log buffer.

Like other popups, the log popup also features several arguments that can be changed before invoking one of the suffix commands. However in case of the log popup these arguments correspond to those currently in use in the current repository’s log buffer. When the log popup is invoked while no log buffer exists for the current repository yet, then the default value of magit-log-arguments is used instead.

For information about the various arguments, see the git-log(1) manpage.

The switch ++order=VALUE is converted to one of --author-date-order, --date-order, or --topo-order before being passed to git log.

The log popup also features several reflog commands. See Reflog.

l     (magit-log-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

l l     (magit-log-current)

Show log for the current branch. When HEAD is detached or with a prefix argument, show log for one or more revs read from the minibuffer.

l o     (magit-log)

Show log for one or more revs read from the minibuffer. The user can input any revision or revisions separated by a space, or even ranges, but only branches, tags, and a representation of the commit at point are available as completion candidates.

l h     (magit-log-head)

Show log for HEAD.

l L     (magit-log-branches)

Show log for all local branches and HEAD.

l b     (magit-log-all-branches)

Show log for all local and remote branches and HEAD.

l a     (magit-log-all)

Show log for all references and HEAD.

Two additional commands that show the log for the file or blob that is being visited in the current buffer exists, see Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files. The command magit-cherry also shows a log, see Cherries.


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5.3.1 Refreshing Logs

The prefix command magit-log-refresh-popup, on L, can be used to change the log arguments used in the current buffer, without changing which log is shown. This works in dedicated log buffers, but also in the status buffer.

L     (magit-log-refresh-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

L g     (magit-log-refresh)

This suffix command sets the local log arguments for the current buffer.

L s     (magit-log-set-default-arguments)

This suffix command sets the default log arguments for buffers of the same type as that of the current buffer. Other existing buffers of the same type are not affected because their local values have already been initialized.

L w     (magit-log-save-default-arguments)

This suffix command sets the default log arguments for buffers of the same type as that of the current buffer, and saves the value for future sessions. Other existing buffers of the same type are not affected because their local values have already been initialized.

L t     (magit-toggle-margin)

Show or hide the margin.


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5.3.2 Log Buffer

L     (magit-log-refresh-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer. See Refreshing Logs.

q     (magit-log-bury-buffer)

Bury the current buffer or the revision buffer in the same frame. Like magit-mode-bury-buffer (which see) but with a negative prefix argument instead bury the revision buffer, provided it is displayed in the current frame.

C-c C-b     (magit-go-backward)

Move backward in current buffer’s history.

C-c C-f     (magit-go-forward)

Move forward in current buffer’s history.

C-c C-n     (magit-log-move-to-parent)

Move to a parent of the current commit. By default, this is the first parent, but a numeric prefix can be used to specify another parent.

SPC     (magit-diff-show-or-scroll-up)

Update the commit or diff buffer for the thing at point.

Either show the commit or stash at point in the appropriate buffer, or if that buffer is already being displayed in the current frame and contains information about that commit or stash, then instead scroll the buffer up. If there is no commit or stash at point, then prompt for a commit.

DEL     (magit-diff-show-or-scroll-down)

Update the commit or diff buffer for the thing at point.

Either show the commit or stash at point in the appropriate buffer, or if that buffer is already being displayed in the current frame and contains information about that commit or stash, then instead scroll the buffer down. If there is no commit or stash at point, then prompt for a commit.

=     (magit-log-toggle-commit-limit)

Toggle the number of commits the current log buffer is limited to. If the number of commits is currently limited, then remove that limit. Otherwise set it to 256.

+     (magit-log-double-commit-limit)

Double the number of commits the current log buffer is limited to.

=     (magit-log-half-commit-limit)

Half the number of commits the current log buffer is limited to.

User Option: magit-log-auto-more

Insert more log entries automatically when moving past the last entry. Only considered when moving past the last entry with magit-goto-*-section commands.

User Option: magit-log-show-refname-after-summary

Whether to show the refnames after the commit summaries. This is useful if you use really long branch names.

For a description of magit-log-margin see Log Margin.


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5.3.3 Log Margin

In buffers which show one or more logs, it is possible to show additional information about each commit in the margin. The options used to configure the margin are named magit-INFIX-margin, where INFIX is the same as in the respective major-mode magit-INFIX-mode. In regular log buffers that would be magit-log-margin.

User Option: magit-log-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in Magit-Log mode buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).

You can change the STYLE and AUTHOR-WIDTH of all magit-INFIX-margin options to the same values by customizing magit-log-margin before magit is loaded. If you do that, then the respective values for the other options will default to what you have set for that variable. Likewise if you set INIT in magit-log-margin to nil, then that is used in the default of all other options. But setting it to t, i.e. re-enforcing the default for that option, does not carry to other options.

L     (magit-margin-popup)

This prefix command features the following commands for changing the appearance of the margin.

In some buffers that support the margin, "L" is bound to magit-log-refresh-popup, but that popup features the same commands, and then some other unrelated commands.

L L     (magit-toggle-margin)

This command shows or hides the margin.

L l     (magit-cycle-margin-style)

This command cycles the style used for the margin.

L d     (magit-toggle-margin-details)

This command shows or hides details in the margin.


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5.3.4 Select from Log

When the user has to select a recent commit that is reachable from HEAD, using regular completion would be inconvenient (because most humans cannot remember hashes or "HEAD~5", at least not without double checking). Instead a log buffer is used to select the commit, which has the advantage that commits are presented in order and with the commit message.

Such selection logs are used when selecting the beginning of a rebase and when selecting the commit to be squashed into.

In addition to the key bindings available in all log buffers, the following additional key bindings are available in selection log buffers:

C-c C-c     (magit-log-select-pick)

Select the commit at point and act on it. Call magit-log-select-pick-function with the selected commit as argument.

C-c C-k     (magit-log-select-quit)

Abort selecting a commit, don’t act on any commit.

User Option: magit-log-select-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in Magit-Log-Select mode buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).


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5.3.5 Reflog

Also see the git-reflog(1) manpage.

These reflog commands are available from the log popup. See Logging.

l r     (magit-reflog-current)

Display the reflog of the current branch.

l O     (magit-reflog-other)

Display the reflog of a branch.

l H     (magit-reflog-head)

Display the HEAD reflog.

User Option: magit-reflog-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in Magit-Reflog mode buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).


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5.3.6 Cherries

Cherries are commits that haven’t been applied upstream (yet), and are usually visualized using a log. Each commit is prefixed with - if it has an equivalent in the upstream and + if it does not, i.e. if it is a cherry.

The command magit-cherry shows cherries for a single branch, but the references buffer (see References Buffer) can show cherries for multiple "upstreams" at once.

Also see the git-reflog(1) manpage.

Y     (magit-cherry)

Show commits that are in a certain branch but that have not been merged in the upstream branch.

User Option: magit-cherry-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in Magit-Cherry mode buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).


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5.4 Diffing

The status buffer contains diffs for the staged and unstaged commits, but that obviously isn’t enough. The prefix command magit-diff-popup, on d, features several suffix commands, which show a specific diff in a separate diff buffer.

Like other popups, the diff popup also features several arguments that can be changed before invoking one of the suffix commands. However in case of the diff popup these arguments correspond to those currently in use in the current repository’s diff buffer. When the diff popup is invoked while no diff buffer exists for the current repository yet, then the default value of magit-diff-arguments is used instead.

Also see the git-diff(1) manpage.

d     (magit-diff-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

d d     (magit-diff-dwim)

Show changes for the thing at point.

d r     (magit-diff)

Show differences between two commits.

RANGE should be a range (A..B or A…B) but can also be a single commit. If one side of the range is omitted, then it defaults to HEAD. If just a commit is given, then changes in the working tree relative to that commit are shown.

If the region is active, use the revisions on the first and last line of the region. With a prefix argument, instead of diffing the revisions, choose a revision to view changes along, starting at the common ancestor of both revisions (i.e., use a "…" range).

d w     (magit-diff-worktree)

Show changes between the current working tree and the HEAD commit. With a prefix argument show changes between the working tree and a commit read from the minibuffer.

d s     (magit-diff-staged)

Show changes between the index and the HEAD commit. With a prefix argument show changes between the index and a commit read from the minibuffer.

d u     (magit-diff-unstaged)

Show changes between the working tree and the index.

d p     (magit-diff-paths)

Show changes between any two files on disk.

All of the above suffix commands update the repository’s diff buffer. The diff popup also features two commands which show differences in another buffer:

d c     (magit-show-commit)

Show the commit at point. If there is no commit at point or with a prefix argument, prompt for a commit.

d t     (magit-stash-show)

Show all diffs of a stash in a buffer.

Two additional commands that show the diff for the file or blob that is being visited in the current buffer exists, see Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files.


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5.4.1 Refreshing Diffs

The prefix command magit-diff-refresh-popup, on D, can be used to change the diff arguments used in the current buffer, without changing which diff is shown. This works in dedicated diff buffers, but also in the status buffer.

D     (magit-diff-refresh-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

D g     (magit-diff-refresh)

This suffix command sets the local diff arguments for the current buffer.

D s     (magit-diff-set-default-arguments)

This suffix command sets the default diff arguments for buffers of the same type as that of the current buffer. Other existing buffers of the same type are not affected because their local values have already been initialized.

D w     (magit-diff-save-default-arguments)

This suffix command sets the default diff arguments for buffers of the same type as that of the current buffer, and saves the value for future sessions. Other existing buffers of the same type are not affected because their local values have already been initialized.

D t     (magit-diff-toggle-refine-hunk)

This command toggles hunk refinement on or off.

D r     (magit-diff-switch-range-type)

This command converts the diff range type from "revA..revB" to "revB…revA", or vice versa.

D f     (magit-diff-flip-revs)

This command swaps revisions in the diff range from "revA..revB" to "revB..revA", or vice versa.

In addition to the above popup, which allows changing any of the supported arguments, there also exist some commands which change a particular argument.

-     (magit-diff-less-context)

This command decreases the context for diff hunks by COUNT lines.

+     (magit-diff-more-context)

This command increases the context for diff hunks by COUNT lines.

0     (magit-diff-default-context)

This command resets the context for diff hunks to the default height.

The following commands quickly change what diff is being displayed without having to using one of the diff popups.

C-c C-d     (magit-diff-while-committing)

While committing, this command shows the changes that are about to be committed. While amending, invoking the command again toggles between showing just the new changes or all the changes that will be committed.

This binding is available in the diff buffer as well as the commit message buffer.

C-c C-b     (magit-go-backward)

This command moves backward in current buffer’s history.

C-c C-f     (magit-go-forward)

This command moves forward in current buffer’s history.


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5.4.2 Diff Buffer

RET     (magit-diff-visit-file)

From a diff, visit the corresponding file at the appropriate position.

If the diff shows changes in the worktree, the index, or HEAD, then visit the actual file. Otherwise, when the diff is about an older commit or a range, then visit the appropriate blob.

If point is on a removed line, then visit the blob for the first parent of the commit which removed that line, i.e. the last commit where that line still existed. Otherwise visit the blob for the commit whose changes are being shown.

When the file or blob to be displayed is already being displayed in another window of the same frame, then just select that window and adjust point. Otherwise, or with a prefix argument, display the buffer in another window.

User Option: magit-diff-visit-previous-blob

This option controls whether magit-diff-visit-file may visit the previous blob. When this is t and point is on a removed line in a diff for a committed change, then magit-diff-visit-file visits the blob from the last revision which still had that line.

Currently this is only supported for committed changes, for staged and unstaged changes magit-diff-visit-file always visits the file in the working tree.

C-<return>     (magit-diff-visit-file-worktree)

From a diff, visit the corresponding file at the appropriate position.

When the file is already being displayed in another window of the same frame, then just select that window and adjust point. With a prefix argument also display in another window.

The actual file in the worktree is visited. The positions in the hunk headers get less useful the "older" the changes are, and as a result, jumping to the appropriate position gets less reliable.

Also see magit-diff-visit-file-worktree, which visits the respective blob, unless the diff shows changes in the worktree, the index, or HEAD.

j     (magit-jump-to-diffstat-or-diff)

Jump to the diffstat or diff. When point is on a file inside the diffstat section, then jump to the respective diff section. Otherwise, jump to the diffstat section or a child thereof.

SPC     (scroll-up)

Scroll text upward.

DEL     (scroll-down)

Scroll text downward.


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5.4.3 Diff Options

User Option: magit-diff-refine-hunk

Whether to show word-granularity differences within diff hunks.

User Option: magit-diff-paint-whitespace

Specify where to highlight whitespace errors.

See magit-diff-highlight-trailing, magit-diff-highlight-indentation. The symbol t means in all diffs, status means only in the status buffer, and nil means nowhere.

User Option: magit-diff-highlight-trailing

Whether to highlight whitespace at the end of a line in diffs. Used only when magit-diff-paint-whitespace is non-nil.

User Option: magit-diff-highlight-indentation

Highlight the "wrong" indentation style. Used only when magit-diff-paint-whitespace is non-nil.

The value is a list of cons cells. The car is a regular expression, and the cdr is the value that applies to repositories whose directory matches the regular expression. If more than one element matches, then the last element in the list applies. The default value should therefore come first in the list.

If the value is tabs, highlight indentation with tabs. If the value is an integer, highlight indentation with at least that many spaces. Otherwise, highlight neither.

User Option: magit-diff-hide-trailing-cr-characters

Whether to hide ^M characters at the end of a line in diffs.

User Option: magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-functions

This option specifies the functions used to highlight the hunk-internal region.

magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-dim-outside overlays the outside of the hunk internal selection with a face that causes the added and removed lines to have the same background color as context lines. This function should not be removed from the value of this option.

magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-using-overlays and magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-using-underline emphasize the region by placing delimiting horizonal lines before and after it. Both of these functions have glitches which cannot be fixed due to limitations of Emacs’ display engine. For more information see https://github.com/magit/magit/issues/2758 ff.

Instead of, or in addition to, using delimiting horizontal lines, to emphasize the boundaries, you may which to emphasize the text itself, using magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-using-face.

In terminal frames it’s not possible to draw lines as the overlay and underline variants normally do, so there they fall back to calling the face function instead.

User Option: magit-diff-unmarked-lines-keep-foreground

This option controls whether added and removed lines outside the hunk-internal region only lose their distinct background color or also the foreground color. Whether the outside of the region is dimmed at all depends on magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-functions.


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5.4.4 Revision Buffer

User Option: magit-revision-insert-related-refs

Whether to show related refs in revision buffers.

User Option: magit-revision-show-gravatar

Whether to show gravatar images in revision buffers.

If non-nil, then the value has to be a cons-cell which specifies where the gravatar images for the author and/or the committer are inserted inside the text that was previously inserted according to magit-revision-header-format.

Both cells are regular expressions. The car specifies where to insert the author gravatar image. The top halve of the image is inserted right after the matched text, the bottom halve on the next line at the same offset. The cdr specifies where to insert the committer image, accordingly. Either the car or the cdr may be nil.


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5.5 Ediffing

This section describes how to enter Ediff from Magit buffers. For information on how to use Ediff itself, see (ediff)Top.

e     (magit-ediff-dwim)

Compare, stage, or resolve using Ediff.

This command tries to guess what file, and what commit or range the user wants to compare, stage, or resolve using Ediff. It might only be able to guess either the file, or range/commit, in which case the user is asked about the other. It might not always guess right, in which case the appropriate magit-ediff-* command has to be used explicitly. If it cannot read the user’s mind at all, then it asks the user for a command to run.

E     (magit-ediff-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands in a popup buffer.

E r     (magit-ediff-compare)

Compare two revisions of a file using Ediff.

If the region is active, use the revisions on the first and last line of the region. With a prefix argument, instead of diffing the revisions, choose a revision to view changes along, starting at the common ancestor of both revisions (i.e., use a "…" range).

E m     (magit-ediff-resolve)

Resolve outstanding conflicts in a file using Ediff, defaulting to the file at point.

Provided that the value of merge.conflictstyle is diff3, you can view the file’s merge-base revision using / in the Ediff control buffer.

In the rare event that you want to manually resolve all conflicts, including those already resolved by Git, use ediff-merge-revisions-with-ancestor.

E s     (magit-ediff-stage)

Stage and unstage changes to a file using Ediff, defaulting to the file at point.

E u     (magit-ediff-show-unstaged)

Show unstaged changes to a file using Ediff.

E i     (magit-ediff-show-staged)

Show staged changes to a file using Ediff.

E w     (magit-ediff-show-working-tree)

Show changes in a file between HEAD and working tree using Ediff.

E c     (magit-ediff-show-commit)

Show changes to a file introduced by a commit using Ediff.

E z     (magit-ediff-show-stash)

Show changes to a file introduced by a stash using Ediff.

User Option: magit-ediff-dwim-show-on-hunks

This option controls what command magit-ediff-dwim calls when point is on uncommitted hunks. When nil, always run magit-ediff-stage. Otherwise, use magit-ediff-show-staged and magit-ediff-show-unstaged to show staged and unstaged changes, respectively.

User Option: magit-ediff-show-stash-with-index

This option controls whether magit-ediff-show-stash includes a buffer containing the file’s state in the index at the time the stash was created. This makes it possible to tell which changes in the stash were staged.

User Option: magit-ediff-quit-hook

This hook is run after quitting an Ediff session that was created using a Magit command. The hook functions are run inside the Ediff control buffer, and should not change the current buffer.

This is similar to ediff-quit-hook but takes the needs of Magit into account. The regular ediff-quit-hook is ignored by Ediff sessions that were created using a Magit command.


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5.6 References Buffer

y     (magit-show-refs-popup)

List and compare references in a dedicated buffer. By default all refs are compared with HEAD, but with a prefix argument this command instead acts as a prefix command and shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

y y     (magit-show-refs-head)

List and compare references in a dedicated buffer. Refs are compared with HEAD.

y c     (magit-show-refs-current)

List and compare references in a dedicated buffer. Refs are compared with the current branch or HEAD if it is detached.

y o     (magit-show-refs)

List and compare references in a dedicated buffer. Refs are compared with a branch read from the user.

User Option: magit-refs-show-commit-count

Whether to show commit counts in Magit-Refs mode buffers.

The default is nil because anything else can be very expensive.

User Option: magit-refs-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in Magit-Refs mode buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).

User Option: magit-refs-margin-for-tags

This option specifies whether to show information about tags in the margin. This is disabled by default because it is slow if there are many tags.

The following variables control how individual refs are displayed. If you change one of these variables (especially the "%c" part), then you should also change the others to keep things aligned. The following %-sequences are supported:

Variable: magit-refs-local-branch-format

Format used for local branches in refs buffers.

Variable: magit-refs-remote-branch-format

Format used for remote branches in refs buffers.

Variable: magit-refs-tags-format

Format used for tags in refs buffers.

Variable: magit-refs-indent-cherry-lines

Indentation of cherries in refs buffers. This should be N-1 where N is taken from "%Nc" in the above format strings.

RET     (magit-visit-ref)

This command visits the reference or revision at point in another buffer. If there is no revision at point or with a prefix argument then it prompts for a revision.

This command behaves just like magit-show-commit as described above, except if point is on a reference in a magit-refs-mode buffer, in which case the behavior may be different, but only if you have customized the option magit-visit-ref-behavior.

User Option: magit-visit-ref-behavior

This option controls how magit-visit-ref behaves in magit-refs-mode buffers.

By default magit-visit-ref behaves like magit-show-commit, in all buffers, including magit-refs-mode buffers. When the type of the section at point is commit then "RET" is bound to magit-show-commit, and when the type is either branch or tag then it is bound to magit-visit-ref.

"RET" is one of Magit’s most essential keys and at least by default it should behave consistently across all of Magit, especially because users quickly learn that it does something very harmless; it shows more information about the thing at point in another buffer.

However "RET" used to behave differently in magit-refs-mode buffers, doing surprising things, some of which cannot really be described as "visit this thing". If you’ve grown accustomed this behavior, you can restore it by adding one or more of the below symbols to the value of this option. But keep in mind that by doing so you don’t only introduce inconsistencies, you also lose some functionality and might have to resort to M-x magit-show-commit to get it back.

magit-visit-ref looks for these symbols in the order in which they are described here. If the presence of a symbol applies to the current situation, then the symbols that follow do not affect the outcome.


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5.6.1 References Sections

The contents of references buffers is controlled using the hook magit-refs-sections-hook. See Section Hooks to learn about such hooks and how to customize them. All of the below functions are members of the default value. Note that it makes much less sense to customize this hook than it does for the respective hook used for the status buffer.

User Option: magit-refs-sections-hook

Hook run to insert sections into a references buffer.

Function: magit-insert-local-branches

Insert sections showing all local branches.

Function: magit-insert-remote-branches

Insert sections showing all remote-tracking branches.

Function: magit-insert-tags

Insert sections showing all tags.


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5.7 Bisecting

Also see the git-bisect(1) manpage.

B     (magit-bisect-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands in a popup buffer.

When bisecting is not in progress, then the popup buffer features the following commands.

B B     (magit-bisect-start)

Start a bisect session.

Bisecting a bug means to find the commit that introduced it. This command starts such a bisect session by asking for a known good and a bad commit.

B s     (magit-bisect-run)

Bisect automatically by running commands after each step.

When bisecting is in progress, then the popup buffer features these commands instead.

B b     (magit-bisect-bad)

Mark the current commit as bad. Use this after you have asserted that the commit does contain the bug in question.

B g     (magit-bisect-good)

Mark the current commit as good. Use this after you have asserted that the commit does not contain the bug in question.

B k     (magit-bisect-skip)

Skip the current commit. Use this if for some reason the current commit is not a good one to test. This command lets Git choose a different one.

B r     (magit-bisect-reset)

After bisecting, cleanup bisection state and return to original HEAD.

By default the status buffer shows information about the ongoing bisect session.

User Option: magit-bisect-show-graph

This option controls whether a graph is displayed for the log of commits that still have to be bisected.


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5.8 Visiting Blobs

M-x magit-find-file     (magit-find-file)

View FILE from REV. Switch to a buffer visiting blob REV:FILE, creating one if none already exists.

M-x magit-find-file-other-window     (magit-find-file-other-window)

View FILE from REV, in another window. Like magit-find-file, but create a new window or reuse an existing one.


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5.9 Blaming

Also see the git-blame(1) manpage.

M-x magit-blame     (magit-blame)

Display edit history of FILE up to REVISION.

Interactively blame the file being visited in the current buffer. If the buffer visits a revision of that file, then blame up to that revision. Otherwise, blame the file’s full history, including uncommitted changes.

If Magit-Blame mode is already turned on then blame recursively, by visiting REVISION:FILE (using magit-find-file), where revision is the revision before the revision that added the lines at point.

ARGS is a list of additional arguments to pass to git blame; only arguments available from magit-blame-popup should be used.

M-x magit-blame-popup     (magit-blame-popup)

This prefix command shows the above suffix command along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

RET     (magit-show-commit)

Show the commit at point. If there is no commit at point or with a prefix argument, prompt for a commit.

SPC     (magit-diff-show-or-scroll-up)

Update the commit or diff buffer for the thing at point.

Either show the commit or stash at point in the appropriate buffer, or if that buffer is already being displayed in the current frame and contains information about that commit or stash, then instead scroll the buffer up. If there is no commit or stash at point, then prompt for a commit.

DEL     (magit-diff-show-or-scroll-down)

Update the commit or diff buffer for the thing at point.

Either show the commit or stash at point in the appropriate buffer, or if that buffer is already being displayed in the current frame and contains information about that commit or stash, then instead scroll the buffer down. If there is no commit or stash at point, then prompt for a commit.

n     (magit-blame-next-chunk)

Move to the next chunk.

N     (magit-blame-next-chunk-same-commit)

Move to the next chunk from the same commit.

p     (magit-blame-previous-chunk)

Move to the previous chunk.

P     (magit-blame-previous-chunk-same-commit)

Move to the previous chunk from the same commit.

q     (magit-blame-quit)

Turn off Magit-Blame mode. If the buffer was created during a recursive blame, then also kill the buffer.

M-w     (magit-blame-copy-hash)

Save the hash of the current chunk’s commit to the kill ring.

When the region is active, then save that to the kill-ring, like kill-ring-save would.

t     (magit-blame-toggle-headings)

Show or hide blame chunk headings.

User Option: magit-blame-heading-format

Format string used for blame headings.

User Option: magit-blame-time-format

Format string used for time strings in blame headings.

User Option: magit-blame-show-headings

Whether to initially show blame block headings. The headings can also be toggled locally using command magit-blame-toggle-headings.

User Option: magit-blame-goto-chunk-hook

Hook run by magit-blame-next-chunk and magit-blame-previous-chunk.


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6 Manipulating


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6.1 Repository Setup

M-x magit-init     (magit-init)

This command initializes a repository and then shows the status buffer for the new repository.

If the directory is below an existing repository, then the user has to confirm that a new one should be created inside. If the directory is the root of the existing repository, then the user has to confirm that it should be reinitialized.

M-x magit-clone     (magit-clone)

This command clones a repository and then shows the status buffer for the new repository.

The user is queried for a remote url and a local directory.

User Option: magit-clone-set-remote.pushDefault

Whether to set the value of remote.pushDefault after cloning.

If t, then set without asking. If nil, then don’t set. If ask, then ask the user every time she clones a repository.


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6.2 Staging and Unstaging

Like Git, Magit can of course stage and unstage complete files. Unlike Git, it also allows users to gracefully un-/stage individual hunks and even just part of a hunk. To stage individual hunks and parts of hunks using Git directly, one has to use the very modal and rather clumsy interface of a git add --interactive session.

With Magit, on the other hand, one can un-/stage individual hunks by just moving point into the respective section inside a diff displayed in the status buffer or a separate diff buffer and typing s or u. To operate on just parts of a hunk, mark the changes that should be un-/staged using the region and then press the same key that would be used to un-/stage. To stage multiple files or hunks at once use a region that starts inside the heading of such a section and ends inside the heading of a sibling section of the same type.

Besides staging and unstaging, Magit also provides several other "apply variants" that can also operate on a file, multiple files at once, a hunk, multiple hunks at once, and on parts of a hunk. These apply variants are described in the next section.

You can also use Ediff to stage and unstage. See Ediffing.

s     (magit-stage)

Add the change at point to the staging area.

With a prefix argument and an untracked file (or files) at point, stage the file but not its content. This makes it possible to stage only a subset of the new file’s changes.

S     (magit-stage-modified)

Stage all changes to files modified in the worktree. Stage all new content of tracked files and remove tracked files that no longer exist in the working tree from the index also. With a prefix argument also stage previously untracked (but not ignored) files.

u     (magit-unstage)

Remove the change at point from the staging area.

Only staged changes can be unstaged. But by default this command performs an action that is somewhat similar to unstaging, when it is called on a committed change: it reverses the change in the index but not in the working tree.

U     (magit-unstage-all)

Remove all changes from the staging area.

User Option: magit-unstage-committed

This option controls whether magit-unstage "unstages" committed changes by reversing them in the index but not the working tree. The alternative is to raise an error.

M-x magit-reverse-in-index     (magit-reverse-in-index)

This command reverses the committed change at point in the index but not the working tree. By default no key is bound directly to this command, but it is indirectly called when u (magit-unstage) is pressed on a committed change.

This allows extracting a change from HEAD, while leaving it in the working tree, so that it can later be committed using a separate commit. A typical workflow would be:

M-x magit-reset-index     (magit-reset-index)

Reset the index to some commit. The commit is read from the user and defaults to the commit at point. If there is no commit at point, then it defaults to HEAD.


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6.2.1 Staging from File-Visiting Buffers

Fine-grained un-/staging has to be done from the status or a diff buffer, but it’s also possible to un-/stage all changes made to the file visited in the current buffer right from inside that buffer.

M-x magit-stage-file     (magit-stage-file)

When invoked inside a file-visiting buffer, then stage all changes to that file. In a Magit buffer, stage the file at point if any. Otherwise prompt for a file to be staged. With a prefix argument always prompt the user for a file, even in a file-visiting buffer or when there is a file section at point.

M-x magit-unstage-file     (magit-unstage-file)

When invoked inside a file-visiting buffer, then unstage all changes to that file. In a Magit buffer, unstage the file at point if any. Otherwise prompt for a file to be unstaged. With a prefix argument always prompt the user for a file, even in a file-visiting buffer or when there is a file section at point.


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6.3 Applying

Magit provides several "apply variants": stage, unstage, discard, reverse, and "regular apply". At least when operating on a hunk they are all implemented using git apply, which is why they are called "apply variants".

The previous section described the staging and unstaging commands. What follows are the commands which implement the remaining apply variants.

a     (magit-apply)

Apply the change at point to the working tree.

With a prefix argument fallback to a 3-way merge. Doing so causes the change to be applied to the index as well.

k     (magit-discard)

Remove the change at point from the working tree.

v     (magit-reverse)

Reverse the change at point in the working tree.

With a prefix argument fallback to a 3-way merge. Doing so causes the change to be applied to the index as well.

With a prefix argument all apply variants attempt a 3-way merge when appropriate (i.e. when git apply is used internally).


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6.4 Committing

When the user initiates a commit, Magit calls git commit without any arguments, so Git has to get it from the user. It creates the file .git/COMMIT_EDITMSG and then opens that file in an editor. Magit arranges for that editor to be the Emacsclient. Once the user finishes the editing session, the Emacsclient exits and Git creates the commit using the file’s content as message.


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6.4.1 Initiating a Commit

Also see the git-commit(1) manpage.

c     (magit-commit-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

c c     (magit-commit)

Create a new commit on HEAD. With a prefix argument amend to the commit at HEAD instead.

c a     (magit-commit-amend)

Amend the last commit.

c e     (magit-commit-extend)

Amend the last commit, without editing the message. With a prefix argument keep the committer date, otherwise change it. The option magit-commit-extend-override-date can be used to inverse the meaning of the prefix argument.

Non-interactively respect the optional OVERRIDE-DATE argument and ignore the option.

c w     (magit-commit-reword)

Reword the last commit, ignoring staged changes. With a prefix argument keep the committer date, otherwise change it. The option magit-commit-reword-override-date can be used to inverse the meaning of the prefix argument.

Non-interactively respect the optional OVERRIDE-DATE argument and ignore the option.

c f     (magit-commit-fixup)

Create a fixup commit.

With a prefix argument the target commit has to be confirmed. Otherwise the commit at point may be used without confirmation depending on the value of option magit-commit-squash-confirm.

c F     (magit-commit-instant-fixup)

Create a fixup commit and instantly rebase.

c s     (magit-commit-squash)

Create a squash commit, without editing the squash message.

With a prefix argument the target commit has to be confirmed. Otherwise the commit at point may be used without confirmation depending on the value of option magit-commit-squash-confirm.

c S     (magit-commit-instant-squash)

Create a squash commit and instantly rebase.

c A     (magit-commit-augment)

Create a squash commit, editing the squash message.

With a prefix argument the target commit has to be confirmed. Otherwise the commit at point may be used without confirmation depending on the value of option magit-commit-squash-confirm.

User Option: magit-commit-ask-to-stage

Whether to ask to stage everything when committing and nothing is staged.

User Option: magit-commit-extend-override-date

Whether using magit-commit-extend changes the committer date.

User Option: magit-commit-reword-override-date

Whether using magit-commit-reword changes the committer date.

User Option: magit-commit-squash-confirm

Whether the commit targeted by squash and fixup has to be confirmed. When non-nil then the commit at point (if any) is used as default choice. Otherwise it has to be confirmed. This option only affects magit-commit-squash and magit-commit-fixup. The "instant" variants always require confirmation because making an error while using those is harder to recover from.


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6.4.2 Editing Commit Messages

After initiating a commit as described in the previous section, two new buffers appear. One shows the changes that are about to committed, while the other is used to write the message. All regular editing commands are available in the commit message buffer. This section only describes the additional commands.

Commit messages are edited in an edit session - in the background Git is waiting for the editor, in our case the Emacsclient, to save the commit message in a file (in most cases .git/COMMIT_EDITMSG) and then return. If the Emacsclient returns with a non-zero exit status then Git does not create the commit. So the most important commands are those for finishing and aborting the commit.

C-c C-c     (with-editor-finish)

Finish the current editing session by returning with exit code 0. Git then creates the commit using the message it finds in the file.

C-c C-k     (with-editor-cancel)

Cancel the current editing session by returning with exit code 1. Git then cancels the commit, but leaves the file untouched.

In addition to being used by Git, these messages may also be stored in a ring that persists until Emacs is closed. By default the message is stored at the beginning and the end of an edit session (regardless of whether the session is finished successfully or was canceled). It is sometimes useful to bring back messages from that ring.

C-s M-s     (git-commit-save-message)

Save the current buffer content to the commit message ring.

M-p     (git-commit-prev-message)

Cycle backward through the commit message ring, after saving the current message to the ring. With a numeric prefix ARG, go back ARG comments.

M-n     (git-commit-next-message)

Cycle forward through the commit message ring, after saving the current message to the ring. With a numeric prefix ARG, go back ARG comments.

By default the diff for the changes that are about to be committed are automatically shown when invoking the commit. When amending to an existing commit it may be useful to show either the changes that are about to be added to that commit or to show those changes together with those that are already committed.

C-c C-d     (magit-diff-while-committing)

While committing, show the changes that are about to be committed. While amending, invoking the command again toggles between showing just the new changes or all the changes that will be committed.

C-c C-w     (magit-pop-revision-stack)

This command inserts a representation of a revision into the current buffer. It can be used inside buffers used to write commit messages but also in other buffers such as buffers used to edit emails or ChangeLog files.

By default this command pops the revision which was last added to the magit-revision-stack and inserts it into the current buffer according to magit-pop-revision-stack-format. Revisions can be put on the stack using magit-copy-section-value and magit-copy-buffer-revision.

If the stack is empty or with a prefix argument it instead reads a revision in the minibuffer. By using the minibuffer history this allows selecting an item which was popped earlier or to insert an arbitrary reference or revision without first pushing it onto the stack.

When reading the revision from the minibuffer, then it might not be possible to guess the correct repository. When this command is called inside a repository (e.g. while composing a commit message), then that repository is used. Otherwise (e.g. while composing an email) then the repository recorded for the top element of the stack is used (even though we insert another revision). If not called inside a repository and with an empty stack, or with two prefix arguments, then read the repository in the minibuffer too.

User Option: magit-pop-revision-stack-format

This option controls how the command magit-pop-revision-stack inserts a revision into the current buffer.

The entries on the stack have the format (HASH TOPLEVEL) and this option has the format (POINT-FORMAT EOB-FORMAT INDEX-REGEXP), all of which may be nil or a string (though either one of EOB-FORMAT or POINT-FORMAT should be a string, and if INDEX-REGEXP is non-nil, then the two formats should be too).

First INDEX-REGEXP is used to find the previously inserted entry, by searching backward from point. The first submatch must match the index number. That number is incremented by one, and becomes the index number of the entry to be inserted. If you don’t want to number the inserted revisions, then use nil for INDEX-REGEXP.

If INDEX-REGEXP is non-nil then both POINT-FORMAT and EOB-FORMAT should contain \"%N\", which is replaced with the number that was determined in the previous step.

Both formats, if non-nil and after removing %N, are then expanded using ‘git show –format=FORMAT …’ inside TOPLEVEL.

The expansion of POINT-FORMAT is inserted at point, and the expansion of EOB-FORMAT is inserted at the end of the buffer (if the buffer ends with a comment, then it is inserted right before that).

Some projects use pseudo headers in commit messages. Magit colorizes such headers and provides some commands to insert such headers.

User Option: git-commit-known-pseudo-headers

A list of Git pseudo headers to be highlighted.

C-c C-a     (git-commit-ack)

Insert a header acknowledging that you have looked at the commit.

C-c C-r     (git-commit-review)

Insert a header acknowledging that you have reviewed the commit.

C-c C-s     (git-commit-signoff)

Insert a header to sign off the commit.

C-c C-t     (git-commit-test)

Insert a header acknowledging that you have tested the commit.

C-c C-o     (git-commit-cc)

Insert a header mentioning someone who might be interested.

C-c C-p     (git-commit-reported)

Insert a header mentioning the person who reported the issue being fixed by the commit.

C-c C-i     (git-commit-suggested)

Insert a header mentioning the person who suggested the change.

git-commit-mode is a minor mode that is only used to establish the above key bindings. This allows using an arbitrary major mode when editing the commit message. It’s even possible to use a different major mode in different repositories, which is useful when different projects impose different commit message conventions.

User Option: git-commit-major-mode

The value of this option is the major mode used to edit Git commit messages.

Because git-commit-mode is a minor mode, we don’t use its mode hook to setup the buffer, except for the key bindings. All other setup happens in the function git-commit-setup, which among other things runs the hook git-commit-setup-hook. The following functions are suitable for that hook.

User Option: git-commit-setup-hook

Hook run at the end of git-commit-setup.

Function: magit-revert-buffers &optional force

Revert unmodified file-visiting buffers of the current repository.

If either magit-revert-buffers is non-nil and inhibit-magit-revert is nil, or if optional FORCE is non-nil, then revert all unmodified buffers that visit files being tracked in the current repository.

Function: git-commit-save-message

Save the current buffer content to the commit message ring.

Function: git-commit-setup-changelog-support

After this function is called, ChangeLog entries are treated as paragraphs.

Function: git-commit-turn-on-auto-fill

Turn on auto-fill-mode and set fill-column to the value of git-commit-fill-column.

Function: git-commit-turn-on-flyspell

Turn on Flyspell mode. Also prevent comments from being checked and finally check current non-comment text.

Function: git-commit-propertize-diff

Propertize the diff shown inside the commit message buffer. Git inserts such diffs into the commit message template when the --verbose argument is used. Magit’s commit popup by default does not offer that argument because the diff that is shown in a separate buffer is more useful. But some users disagree, which is why this function exists.

Function: with-editor-usage-message

Show usage information in the echo area.

Magit also helps with writing good commit messages by complaining when certain rules are violated.

User Option: git-commit-summary-max-length

The intended maximal length of the summary line of commit messages. Characters beyond this column are colorized to indicate that this preference has been violated.

User Option: git-commit-fill-column

Column beyond which automatic line-wrapping should happen in commit message buffers.

User Option: git-commit-finish-query-functions

List of functions called to query before performing commit.

The commit message buffer is current while the functions are called. If any of them returns nil, then the commit is not performed and the buffer is not killed. The user should then fix the issue and try again.

The functions are called with one argument. If it is non-nil then that indicates that the user used a prefix argument to force finishing the session despite issues. Functions should usually honor this wish and return non-nil.

Function: git-commit-check-style-conventions

Check for violations of certain basic style conventions. For each violation ask the user if she wants to proceed anyway. This makes sure the summary line isn’t too long and that the second line is empty.

To show no diff while committing remove magit-commit-diff from server-switch-hook.


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6.5 Branching


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6.5.1 The Two Remotes

The upstream branch of some local branch is the branch into which the commits on that local branch should eventually be merged, usually something like origin/master. For the master branch itself the upstream branch and the branch it is being pushed to, are usually the same remote branch. But for a feature branch the upstream branch and the branch it is being pushed to should differ.

The commits on feature branches too should eventually end up in a remote branch such as origin/master or origin/maint. Such a branch should therefore be used as the upstream. But feature branches shouldn’t be pushed directly to such branches. Instead a feature branch my-feature is usually pushed to my-fork/my-feature or if you are a contributor origin/my-feature. After the new feature has been reviewed, the maintainer merges the feature into master. And finally master (not my-feature itself) is pushed to origin/master.

But new features seldom are perfect on the first try, and so feature branches usually have to be reviewed, improved, and re-pushed several times. Pushing should therefore be easy to do, and for that reason many Git users have concluded that it is best to use the remote branch to which the local feature branch is being pushed as its upstream.

But luckily Git has long ago gained support for a push-remote which can be configured separately from the upstream branch, using the variables branch.<name>.pushRemote and remote.pushDefault. So we no longer have to choose which of the two remotes should be used as "the remote".

Each of the fetching, pulling, and pushing popups features three commands that act on the current branch and some other branch. Of these, p is bound to a command which acts on the push-remote, u is bound to a command which acts on the upstream, and e is bound to a command which acts on any other branch. The status buffer shows unpushed and unpulled commits for both the push-remote and the upstream.

It’s fairly simple to configure these two remotes. The values of all the variables that are related to fetching, pulling, and pushing (as well as some other branch-related variables) can be inspected and changed using the popup magit-branch-config-popup, which is a sub-popup of many popups that deal with branches. It is also possible to set the push-remote or upstream while pushing (see Pushing).


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6.5.2 The Branch Popup

The popup magit-branch-popup is used to create and checkout branches, and to make changes to existing branches. It is not used to fetch, pull, merge, rebase, or push branches, i.e. this popup deals with branches themselves, not with the commits reachable from them. Those features are available from separate popups.

b     (magit-branch-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands in a popup buffer.

By default it also displays the values of some branch-related Git variables and allows changing their values, just like the specialized magit-branch-config-popup does.

User Option: magit-branch-popup-show-variables

Whether the magit-branch-popup shows Git variables. This defaults to t to avoid changing key bindings. When set to nil, no variables are displayed directly in this popup, and the sub-popup magit-branch-config-popup has to be used indead to view and change branch related variables.

b b     (magit-checkout)

Checkout a revision read in the minibuffer and defaulting to the branch or arbitrary revision at point. If the revision is a local branch then that becomes the current branch. If it is something else then HEAD becomes detached. Checkout fails if the working tree or the staging area contain changes.

b n     (magit-branch)

Create a new branch. The user is asked for a branch or arbitrary revision to use as the starting point of the new branch. When a branch name is provided, then that becomes the upstream branch of the new branch. The name of the new branch is also read in the minibuffer.

Also see option magit-branch-prefer-remote-upstream.

b c     (magit-branch-and-checkout)

This command creates a new branch like magit-branch, but then also checks it out.

Also see option magit-branch-prefer-remote-upstream.

b s     (magit-branch-spinoff)

This command creates and checks out a new branch starting at and tracking the current branch. That branch in turn is reset to the last commit it shares with its upstream. If the current branch has no upstream or no unpushed commits, then the new branch is created anyway and the previously current branch is not touched.

This is useful to create a feature branch after work has already began on the old branch (likely but not necessarily "master").

If the current branch is a member of the value of option magit-branch-prefer-remote-upstream (which see), then the current branch will be used as the starting point as usual, but the upstream of the starting-point may be used as the upstream of the new branch, instead of the starting-point itself.

If optional FROM is non-nil, then the source branch is reset to FROM~, instead of to the last commit it shares with its upstream. Interactively, FROM is only ever non-nil, if the region selects some commits, and among those commits, FROM is the commit that is the fewest commits ahead of the source branch. (It not yet possible to spin off a single commit, unless it is the only unpushed commit. See #2920.)

The commit at the other end of the selection actually does not matter, all commits between FROM and HEAD are moved to the new branch. If FROM is not reachable from HEAD or is reachable from the source branch’s upstream, then an error is raised.

b x     (magit-branch-reset)

This command resets a branch, defaulting to the branch at point, to the tip of another branch or any other commit.

When the branch being reset is the current branch, then a hard reset is performed. If there are any uncommitted changes, then the user has to confirm the reset because those changes would be lost.

This is useful when you have started work on a feature branch but realize it’s all crap and want to start over.

When resetting to another branch and a prefix argument is used, then the target branch is set as the upstream of the branch that is being reset.

b k     (magit-branch-delete)

Delete one or multiple branches. If the region marks multiple branches, then offer to delete those. Otherwise, prompt for a single branch to be deleted, defaulting to the branch at point.

b r     (magit-branch-rename)

Rename a branch. The branch and the new name are read in the minibuffer. With prefix argument the branch is renamed even if that name conflicts with an existing branch.

User Option: magit-branch-read-upstream-first

When creating a branch, whether to read the upstream branch before the name of the branch that is to be created. The default is nil, and I recommend you leave it at that.

User Option: magit-branch-prefer-remote-upstream

This option specifies whether remote upstreams are favored over local upstreams when creating new branches.

When a new branch is created, Magit offers the branch, commit, or stash as the default starting point of the new branch. If there is no such thing at point, then it falls back to offer the current branch as starting-point. The user may then accept that default or pick something else.

If the chosen starting-point is a branch, then it may also be set as the upstream of the new branch, depending on the value of the Git variable ‘branch.autoSetupMerge’. By default this is done for remote branches, but not for local branches.

You might prefer to always use some remote branch as upstream. If the chosen starting-point is (1) a local branch, (2) whose name matches a member of the value of this option, (3) the upstream of that local branch is a remote branch with the same name, and (4) that remote branch can be fast-forwarded to the local branch, then the chosen branch is used as starting-point, but its own upstream is used as the upstream of the new branch.

Members of this option’s value are treated as branch names that have to match exactly unless they contain a character that makes them invalid as a branch name. Recommended characters to use to trigger interpretation as a regexp are "*" and "^". Some other characters which you might expect to be invalid, actually are not, e.g. ".+$" are all perfectly valid. More precisely, if ‘git check-ref-format –branch STRING’ exits with a non-zero status, then treat STRING as a regexp.

Assuming the chosen branch matches these conditions you would end up with with e.g.:

feature --upstream--> origin/master

instead of

feature --upstream--> master --upstream--> origin/master

Which you prefer is a matter of personal preference. If you do prefer the former, then you should add branches such as master, next, and maint to the value of this options.

User Option: magit-branch-adjust-remote-upstream-alist

The value of this option is an alist of branches to be used as the upstream when branching a remote branch.

When creating a local branch from an ephemeral branch located on a remote, e.g. a feature or hotfix branch, then that remote branch should usually not be used as the upstream branch, since the push-remote already allows accessing it and having both the upstream and the push-remote reference the same related branch would be wasteful. Instead a branch like "maint" or "master" should be used as the upstream.

This option allows specifing the branch that should be used as the upstream when branching certain remote branches. The value is an alist of the form ((UPSTREAM . RULE)...). The first matching element is used, the following elements are ignored.

UPSTREAM is the branch to be used as the upstream for branches specified by RULE. It can be a local or a remote branch.

RULE can either be a regular expression, matching branches whose upstream should be the one specified by UPSTREAM. Or it can be a list of the only branches that should not use UPSTREAM; all other branches will. Matching is done after stripping the remote part of the name of the branch that is being branched from.

If you use a finite set of non-ephemeral branches across all your repositories, then you might use something like:

(("origin/master" "master" "next" "maint"))

Or if the names of all your ephemeral branches contain a slash, at least in some repositories, then a good value could be:

(("origin/master" . "/"))

Of course you can also fine-tune:

(("origin/maint" . "\\`hotfix/")
 ("origin/master" . "\\`feature/"))
Command: magit-branch-orphan

This command creates and checks out a new orphan branch with contents from a given revision.


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6.5.3 The Branch Config Popup

Command: magit-branch-popup

This prefix command shows the following branch-related Git variables in a popup buffer. The values can be changed from that buffer.

This popup is a sub-popup of several popups that deal with branches, including magit-branch-popup, magit-pull-popup, magit-fetch-popup, magit-pull-and-fetch-popup, and magit-push-popup. In all of these popups "C" is bound to this popup.

The following variables are used to configure a specific branch. The values are being displayed for the current branch (if any). To change the value for another branch invoke magit-branch-config-popup with a prefix argument.

Variable: branch.NAME.merge

Together with branch.NAME.remote this variable defines the upstream branch of the local branch named NAME. The value of this variable is the full reference of the upstream branch.

Variable: branch.NAME.remote

Together with branch.NAME.merge this variable defines the upstream branch of the local branch named NAME. The value of this variable is the name of the upstream remote.

Variable: branch.NAME.rebase

This variable controls whether pulling into the branch named NAME is done by rebasing or by merging the fetched branch.

Variable: branch.NAME.pushRemote

This variable specifies the remote that the branch named NAME is usually pushed to. The value has to be the name of an existing remote.

It is not possible to specify the name of branch to push the local branch to. The name of the remote branch is always the same as the name of the local branch.

If this variable is undefined but remote.pushDefault is defined, then the value of the latter is used. By default remote.pushDefault is undefined.

Variable: branch.NAME.description

This variable can be used to describe the branch named NAME. That description is used e.g. when turning the branch into a series of patches.

The following variables specify defaults which are used if the above branch-specific variables are not set.

Variable: pull.rebase

This variable specifies whether pulling is done by rebasing or by merging. It can be overwritten using branch.NAME.rebase.

Since it is never a good idea to merge the upstream branch into a feature or hotfix branch and most branches are such branches, you should consider setting this to true, and branch.master.rebase to false.

Variable: remote.pushDefault

This variable specifies what remote the local branches are usually pushed to. This can be overwritten per branch using branch.NAME.pushRemote.

The following variables are used during the creation of a branch and control whether the various branch-specific variables are automatically set at this time.

Variable: branch.autoSetupMerge

This variable specifies under what circumstances creating a branch NAME should result in the variables branch.NAME.merge and branch.NAME.remote being set according to the starting point used to create the branch. If the starting point isn’t a branch, then these variables are never set.

Variable: branch.autoSetupRebase

This variable specifies whether creating a branch NAME should result in the variable branch.NAME.rebase being set to true.

Note that the respective commands always change the repository-local values. If you want to change the global value, which is used when the local value is undefined, then you have to do so on the command line, e.g.:

git config --global remote.autoSetupMerge always

For more information about these variables you should also see

the git-config(1) manpage.

Also see the git-branch(1) manpage., the git-checkout(1) manpage. and Pushing.

User Option: magit-prefer-remote-upstream

This option controls whether commands that read a branch from the user and then set it as the upstream branch, offer a local or a remote branch as default completion candidate, when they have the choice.

This affects all commands that use magit-read-upstream-branch or magit-read-starting-point, which includes all commands that change the upstream and many which create new branches.


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6.6 Merging

Also see the git-merge(1) manpage. For information on how to resolve merge conflicts see the next section.

m     (magit-merge-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

When no merge is in progress, then the popup buffer features the following commands.

m m     (magit-merge)

Merge another branch or an arbitrary revision into the current branch. The branch or revision to be merged is read in the minibuffer and defaults to the one at point.

Unless there are conflicts or a prefix argument is used, the resulting merge commit uses a generic commit message, and the user does not get a chance to inspect or change it before the commit is created. With a prefix argument this does not actually create the merge commit, which makes it possible to inspect how conflicts were resolved and to adjust the commit message.

m e     (magit-merge-editmsg)

Merge another branch or an arbitrary revision into the current branch and open a commit message buffer, so that the user can make adjustments. The commit is not actually created until the user finishes with C-c C-c.

m n     (magit-merge-nocommit)

Merge another branch or an arbitrary revision into the current branch, but do not actually create the commit. The user can then further adjust the merge, even when automatic conflict resolution succeeded and/or adjust the commit message.

m p     (magit-merge-preview)

Preview result of merging another branch or an arbitrary revision into the current branch.

When a merge is in progress, then the popup buffer features these commands instead.

m m     (magit-merge)

After resolving conflicts, proceed with the merge. If there are still conflicts, then this fails.

m a     (magit-merge-abort)

Abort the current merge operation.


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6.7 Resolving Conflicts

When merging branches (or otherwise combining or changing history) conflicts can occur. If you edited two completely different parts of the same file in two branches and then merge one of these branches into the other, then Git can resolve that on its own, but if you edit the same area of a file, then a human is required to decide how the two versions, or "sides of the conflict", are to be combined into one.

Here we can only provide a brief introduction to the subject and point you toward some tools that can help. If you are new to this, then please also consult Git’s own documentation as well as other resources.

If a file has conflicts and Git cannot resolve them by itself, then it puts both versions into the affected file along with special markers whose purpose is to denote the boundaries of the unresolved part of the file and between the different versions. These boundary lines begin with the strings consisting of six times the same character, one of <, |, = and > and are followed by information about the source of the respective versions, e.g.:

<<<<<<< HEAD
Take the blue pill.
=======
Take the red pill.
>>>>>>> feature

In this case you have chosen to take the red pill on one branch and on another you picked the blue pill. Now that you are merging these two diverging branches, Git cannot possibly know which pill you want to take.

To resolve that conflict you have to create a version of the affected area of the file by keeping only one of the sides, possibly by editing it in order to bring in the changes from the other side, remove the other versions as well as the markers, and then stage the result. A possible resolution might be:

Take both pills.

Often it is useful to see not only the two sides of the conflict but also the "original" version from before the same area of the file was modified twice on different branches. Instruct Git to insert that version as well by running this command once:

git config --global merge.conflictStyle diff3

The above conflict might then have looked like this:

<<<<<<< HEAD
Take the blue pill.
||||||| merged common ancestors
Take either the blue or the red pill, but not both.
=======
Take the red pill.
>>>>>>> feature

If that were the case, then the above conflict resolution would not have been correct, which demonstrates why seeing the original version alongside the conflicting versions can be useful.

You can perform the conflict resolution completely by hand, but Emacs also provides some packages that help in the process: Smerge, Ediff ((ediff)Top), and Emerge ((emacs)Emerge). Magit does not provide its own tools for conflict resolution, but it does make using Smerge and Ediff more convenient. (Ediff supersedes Emerge, so you probably don’t want to use the latter anyway.)

In the Magit status buffer, files with unresolved conflicts are listed in the "Unstaged changes" and/or "Staged changes" sections. They are prefixed with the word "unmerged", which in this context essentially is a synonym for "unresolved".

Pressing RET while point is on such a file section shows a buffer visiting that file, turns on smerge-mode in that buffer, and places point inside the first area with conflicts. You should then resolve that conflict using regular edit commands and/or Smerge commands.

Unfortunately Smerge does not have a manual, but you can get a list of commands and binding C-c ^ C-h and press RET while point is on a command name to read its documentation.

Normally you would edit one version and then tell Smerge to keep only that version. Use C-c ^ m (smerge-keep-mine) to keep the HEAD version or C-c ^ o (smerge-keep-other) to keep the version that follows "|||||||". Then use C-c ^ n to move to the next conflicting area in the same file. Once you are done resolving conflicts, return to the Magit status buffer. The file should now be shown as "modified", no longer as "unmerged", because Smerge automatically stages the file when you save the buffer after resolving the last conflict.

Alternatively you could use Ediff, which uses separate buffers for the different versions of the file. To resolve conflicts in a file using Ediff press e while point is on such a file in the status buffer.

Ediff can be used for other purposes as well. For more information on how to enter Ediff from Magit, see Ediffing. Explaining how to use Ediff is beyond the scope of this manual, instead see (ediff)Top.

If you are unsure whether you should Smerge or Ediff, then use the former. It is much easier to understand and use, and except for truely complex conflicts, the latter is usually overkill.


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6.8 Rebasing

Also see the git-rebase(1) manpage. For information on how to resolve conflicts that occur during rebases see the preceding section.

r     (magit-rebase-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

When no rebase is in progress, then the popup buffer features the following commands.

Using one of these commands starts a rebase sequence. Git might then stop somewhere along the way, either because you told it to do so, or because applying a commit failed due to a conflict. When that happens, then the status buffer shows information about the rebase sequence which is in progress in a section similar to a log section. See Information About In-Progress Rebase.

r p     (magit-rebase-onto-pushremote)

Rebase the current branch onto branch.<name>.pushRemote. If that variable is unset, then rebase onto remote.pushDefault.

r u     (magit-rebase-onto-upstream)

Rebase the current branch onto its upstream branch.

r e     (magit-rebase)

Rebase the current branch onto a branch read in the minibuffer. All commits that are reachable from head but not from the selected branch TARGET are being rebased."

r s     (magit-rebase-subset)

Start a non-interactive rebase sequence with commits from START to HEAD onto NEWBASE. START has to be selected from a list of recent commits.

Note that the popup also features the infix argument --interactive. This can be used to turn one of the above non-interactive rebase variants into an interactive rebase.

For example if you want to clean up a feature branch and at the same time rebase it onto master, then you could use r-iu. But we recommend that you instead do that in two steps. First use ri to cleanup the feature branch, and then in a second step ru to rebase it onto master. That way if things turn out to be more complicated than you thought and/or you make a mistake and have to start over, then you only have to redo half the work.

Explicitly enabling --interactive won’t have an effect on the following commands as they always use that argument anyway, even if it is not enabled in the popup.

r i     (magit-rebase-interactive)

Start an interactive rebase sequence.

r f     (magit-rebase-autosquash)

Combine squash and fixup commits with their intended targets.

r m     (magit-rebase-edit-commit)

Edit a single older commit using rebase.

r w     (magit-rebase-reword-commit)

Reword a single older commit using rebase.

When a rebase is in progress, then the popup buffer features these commands instead.

r r     (magit-rebase-continue)

Restart the current rebasing operation.

In some cases this pops up a commit message buffer for you do edit. With a prefix argument the old message is reused as-is.

r s     (magit-rebase-skip)

Skip the current commit and restart the current rebase operation.

r e     (magit-rebase-edit)

Edit the todo list of the current rebase operation.

r a     (magit-rebase-abort)

Abort the current rebase operation, restoring the original branch.


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6.8.1 Editing Rebase Sequences

C-c C-c     (with-editor-finish)

Finish the current editing session by returning with exit code 0. Git then uses the rebase instructions it finds in the file.

C-c C-k     (with-editor-cancel)

Cancel the current editing session by returning with exit code 1. Git then forgoes starting the rebase sequence.

RET     (git-rebase-show-commit)

Show the commit on the current line in another buffer and select that buffer.

SPC     (git-rebase-show-or-scroll-up)

Show the commit on the current line in another buffer without selecting that buffer. If the revision buffer is already visible in another window of the current frame, then instead scroll that window up.

DEL     (git-rebase-show-or-scroll-down)

Show the commit on the current line in another buffer without selecting that buffer. If the revision buffer is already visible in another window of the current frame, then instead scroll that window down.

p     (git-rebase-backward-line)

Move to previous line.

n     (forward-line)

Move to next line.

M-p     (git-rebase-move-line-up)

Move the current commit (or command) up.

M-n     (git-rebase-move-line-down)

Move the current commit (or command) down.

r     (git-rebase-reword)

Edit message of commit on current line.

e     (git-rebase-edit)

Stop at the commit on the current line.

s     (git-rebase-squash)

Meld commit on current line into previous commit, and edit message.

f     (git-rebase-fixup)

Meld commit on current line into previous commit, discarding the current commit’s message.

k     (git-rebase-kill-line)

Kill the current action line.

c     (git-rebase-pick)

Use commit on current line.

x     (git-rebase-exec)

Insert a shell command to be run after the proceeding commit.

If there already is such a command on the current line, then edit that instead. With a prefix argument insert a new command even when there already is one on the current line. With empty input remove the command on the current line, if any.

y     (git-rebase-insert)

Read an arbitrary commit and insert it below current line.

C-x u     (git-rebase-undo)

Undo some previous changes. Like undo but works in read-only buffers.

User Option: git-rebase-auto-advance

Whether to move to next line after changing a line.

User Option: git-rebase-show-instructions

Whether to show usage instructions inside the rebase buffer.

User Option: git-rebase-confirm-cancel

Whether confirmation is required to cancel.


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6.8.2 Information About In-Progress Rebase

While a rebase sequence is in progress, the status buffer features a section which lists the commits that have already been applied as well as the commits that still have to be applied.

The commits are split in two halves. When rebase stops at a commit, either because the user has to deal with a conflict or explicitly requested that rebase stops at that commit, then point is placed on the commit that separates the two groups, i.e. on HEAD. The commits above it have not been applied yet, while it and the commits below it have already been applied. In between these two groups of applied and yet-to-be applied commits, there sometimes is a commit which has been dropped.

Each commit is prefixed with a word and these words are additionally shown in different colors to indicate the status of the commits.

The following colors are used:

Of course these colors are subject to the color-theme in use.

The following words are used:

Do not worry if you do not fully understand the above. That’s okay, you will acquire a good enough understanding through practice.

For other sequence operations such as cherry-picking, a similar section is displayed, but they lack some of the features described above, due to limitations in the git commands used to implement them. Most importantly these sequences only support "picking" a commit but not other actions such as "rewording", and they do not keep track of the commits which have already been applied.


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6.9 Cherry Picking

Also see the git-cherry-pick(1) manpage.

A     (magit-cherry-pick-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

When no cherry-pick or revert is in progress, then the popup buffer features the following commands.

A A     (magit-cherry-pick)

Cherry-pick a commit. Prompt for a commit, defaulting to the commit at point. If the region selects multiple commits, then pick all of them, without prompting.

A a     (magit-cherry-apply)

Apply the changes in a commit to the working tree, but do not commit them. Prompt for a commit, defaulting to the commit at point. If the region selects multiple commits, then apply all of them, without prompting.

This command also has a top-level binding, which can be invoked without using the popup by typing a at the top-level.

When a cherry-pick or revert is in progress, then the popup buffer features these commands instead.

A A     (magit-sequence-continue)

Resume the current cherry-pick or revert sequence.

A s     (magit-sequence-skip)

Skip the stopped at commit during a cherry-pick or revert sequence.

A a     (magit-sequence-abort)

Abort the current cherry-pick or revert sequence. This discards all changes made since the sequence started.


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6.9.1 Reverting

V     (magit-revert-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

When no cherry-pick or revert is in progress, then the popup buffer features the following commands.

V V     (magit-revert)

Revert a commit by creating a new commit. Prompt for a commit, defaulting to the commit at point. If the region selects multiple commits, then revert all of them, without prompting.

V v     (magit-revert-no-commit)

Revert a commit by applying it in reverse to the working tree. Prompt for a commit, defaulting to the commit at point. If the region selects multiple commits, then revert all of them, without prompting.

When a cherry-pick or revert is in progress, then the popup buffer features these commands instead.

V A     (magit-sequence-continue)

Resume the current cherry-pick or revert sequence.

V s     (magit-sequence-skip)

Skip the stopped at commit during a cherry-pick or revert sequence.

V a     (magit-sequence-abort)

Abort the current cherry-pick or revert sequence. This discards all changes made since the sequence started.


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6.10 Resetting

Also see the git-reset(1) manpage.

x     (magit-reset)

Reset the head and index to some commit read from the user and defaulting to the commit at point. The working tree is kept as-is. With a prefix argument also reset the working tree.

M-x magit-reset-index     (magit-reset-index)

Reset the index to some commit read from the user and defaulting to the commit at point. Keep the HEAD and working tree as-is, so if the commit refers to the HEAD, then this effectively unstages all changes.

M-x magit-reset-head     (magit-reset-head)

Reset the HEAD and index to some commit read from the user and defaulting to the commit at point. The working tree is kept as-is.

M-x magit-reset-soft     (magit-reset-soft)

Reset the HEAD to some commit read from the user and defaulting to the commit at point. The index and the working tree are kept as-is.

M-x magit-reset-hard     (magit-reset-hard)

Reset the HEAD, index, and working tree to some commit read from the user and defaulting to the commit at point.

M-x magit-file-checkout     (magit-file-checkout)

Update file in the working tree and index to the contents from a revision.

Both the revision and file are read from the user.


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6.11 Stashing

Also see the git-stash(1) manpage.

z     (magit-stash-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

z z     (magit-stash)

Create a stash of the index and working tree. Untracked files are included according to popup arguments. One prefix argument is equivalent to --include-untracked while two prefix arguments are equivalent to --all.

z i     (magit-stash-index)

Create a stash of the index only. Unstaged and untracked changes are not stashed.

z w     (magit-stash-worktree)

Create a stash of unstaged changes in the working tree. Untracked files are included according to popup arguments. One prefix argument is equivalent to --include-untracked while two prefix arguments are equivalent to --all.

z x     (magit-stash-keep-index)

Create a stash of the index and working tree, keeping index intact. Untracked files are included according to popup arguments. One prefix argument is equivalent to --include-untracked while two prefix arguments are equivalent to --all.

z Z     (magit-snapshot)

Create a snapshot of the index and working tree. Untracked files are included according to popup arguments. One prefix argument is equivalent to --include-untracked while two prefix arguments are equivalent to --all.

z I     (magit-snapshot-index)

Create a snapshot of the index only. Unstaged and untracked changes are not stashed.

z W     (magit-snapshot-worktree)

Create a snapshot of unstaged changes in the working tree. Untracked files are included according to popup arguments. One prefix argument is equivalent to --include-untracked while two prefix arguments are equivalent to --all-.

z a     (magit-stash-apply)

Apply a stash to the working tree. Try to preserve the stash index. If that fails because there are staged changes, apply without preserving the stash index.

z p     (magit-stash-pop)

Apply a stash to the working tree and remove it from stash list. Try to preserve the stash index. If that fails because there are staged changes, apply without preserving the stash index and forgo removing the stash.

z k     (magit-stash-drop)

Remove a stash from the stash list. When the region is active, offer to drop all contained stashes.

z v     (magit-stash-show)

Show all diffs of a stash in a buffer.

z b     (magit-stash-branch)

Create and checkout a new BRANCH from STASH.

z f     (magit-stash-format-patch)

Create a patch from STASH.

k     (magit-stash-clear)

Remove all stashes saved in REF’s reflog by deleting REF.

z l     (magit-stash-list)

List all stashes in a buffer.

User Option: magit-stashes-margin

This option specifies whether the margin is initially shown in stashes buffers and how it is formatted.

The value has the form (INIT STYLE WIDTH AUTHOR AUTHOR-WIDTH).


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7 Transferring


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7.1 Remotes

Also see the git-remote(1) manpage.

M     (magit-remote-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

M a     (magit-remote-add)

Add a remote and fetch it. The remote name and url are read in the minibuffer.

M r     (magit-remote-rename)

Rename a remote. Both the old and the new names are read in the minibuffer.

M u     (magit-remote-set-url)

Change the url of a remote. Both the remote and the new url are read in the minibuffer.

M k     (magit-remote-remove)

Delete a remote, read from the minibuffer.

User Option: magit-remote-add-set-remote.pushDefault

Whether to set the value of remote.pushDefault after adding a remote.

If ask, then always ask. If ask-if-unset, then ask, but only if the variable isn’t set already. If nil, then don’t ever set. If the value is a string, then set without asking, provided that the name of the added remote is equal to that string and the variable isn’t already set.


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7.2 Fetching

For information about the differences between the upstream and the push-remote, see Branching.

Also see the git-fetch(1) manpage.

f     (magit-fetch-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

f p     (magit-fetch-from-pushremote)

Fetch from the push-remote of the current branch.

f u     (magit-fetch-from-upstream)

Fetch from the upstream of the current branch.

f e     (magit-fetch)

Fetch from another repository.

f o     (magit-fetch-branch)

Fetch a branch from a remote, both of which are read from the minibuffer.

f r     (magit-fetch-refspec)

Fetch from a remote using an explicit refspec, both of which are read from the minibuffer.

f a     (magit-fetch-all)

Fetch from all remotes.

f m     (magit-submodule-fetch)

Fetch all submodules. With a prefix argument fetch all remotes of all submodules.

Instead of using one popup for fetching and another for pulling, you could also use magit-pull-and-fetch-popup. See its doc-string for more information.


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7.3 Pulling

For information about the differences between the upstream and the push-remote, see Branching.

Also see the git-pull(1) manpage.

F     (magit-pull-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands in a popup buffer.

F p     (magit-pull-from-pushremote)

Pull from the push-remote of the current branch.

F u     (magit-pull-from-upstream)

Pull from the upstream of the current branch.

F e     (magit-pull)

Pull from a branch read in the minibuffer.

Instead of using one popup for fetching and another for pulling, you could also use magit-pull-and-fetch-popup. See its doc-string for more information.


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7.4 Pushing

For information about the differences between the upstream and the push-remote, see Branching.

Also see the git-push(1) manpage.

P     (magit-push-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

P p     (magit-push-current-to-pushremote)

Push the current branch to branch.<name>.pushRemote or if that is unset to remote.pushDefault.

When magit-push-current-set-remote-if-missing is non-nil and the push-remote is not configured, then read the push-remote from the user, set it, and then push to it. With a prefix argument the push-remote can be changed before pushed to it.

P u     (magit-push-current-to-upstream)

Push the current branch to its upstream branch.

When magit-push-current-set-remote-if-missing is non-nil and the push-remote is not configured, then read the upstram from the user, set it, and then push to it. With a prefix argument the push-remote can be changed before pushed to it.

P e     (magit-push-current)

Push the current branch to a branch read in the minibuffer.

P o     (magit-push)

Push an arbitrary branch or commit somewhere. Both the source and the target are read in the minibuffer.

P r     (magit-push-refspecs)

Push one or multiple refspecs to a remote, both of which are read in the minibuffer.

To use multiple refspecs, separate them with commas. Completion is only available for the part before the colon, or when no colon is used.

P m     (magit-push-matching)

Push all matching branches to another repository. If multiple remotes exit, then read one from the user. If just one exists, use that without requiring confirmation.

P t     (magit-push-tags)

Push all tags to another repository. If only one remote exists, then push to that. Otherwise prompt for a remote, offering the remote configured for the current branch as default.

P T     (magit-push-tag)

Push a tag to another repository.

Two more push commands exist, which by default are not available from the push popup. See their doc-strings for instructions on how to add them to the popup.

Command: magit-push-implicitly args

Push somewhere without using an explicit refspec.

This command simply runs git push -v [ARGS]. ARGS are the arguments specified in the popup buffer. No explicit refspec arguments are used. Instead the behavior depends on at least these Git variables: push.default, remote.pushDefault, branch.<branch>.pushRemote, branch.<branch>.remote, branch.<branch>.merge, and remote.<remote>.push.

Command: magit-push-to-remote remote args

Push to the remote REMOTE without using an explicit refspec. The remote is read in the minibuffer.

This command simply runs git push -v [ARGS] REMOTE. ARGS are the arguments specified in the popup buffer. No refspec arguments are used. Instead the behavior depends on at least these Git variables: push.default, remote.pushDefault, branch.<branch>.pushRemote, branch.<branch>.remote, branch.<branch>.merge, and remote.<remote>.push.

User Option: magit-push-current-set-remote-if-missing

This option controls whether missing remotes are configured before pushing.

When nil, then the command magit-push-current-to-pushremote and magit-push-current-to-upstream do not appear in the push popup if the push-remote resp. upstream is not configured. If the user invokes one of these commands anyway, then it raises an error.

When non-nil, then these commands always appear in the push popup. But if the required configuration is missing, then they do appear in a way that indicates that this is the case. If the user invokes one of them, then it asks for the necessary configuration, stores the configuration, and then uses it to push a first time.

This option also affects whether the argument --set-upstream is available in the popup. If the value is non-nil, then that argument is redundant. But note that changing the value of this option does not take affect immediately, the argument will only be added or removed after restarting Emacs.


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7.5 Creating and Sending Patches

W     (magit-patch-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

W p     (magit-format-patch)

Create patches for a set commits. If the region marks commits, then create patches for those. Otherwise prompt for a range or a single commit, defaulting to the commit at point.

W r     (magit-request-pull)

Request that upstream pulls from your public repository.


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7.6 Applying Patches

Also see the git-am(1) manpage.

w     (magit-am-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

w w     (magit-am-apply-patches)

Apply one or more patches. If the region marks files, then apply those patches. Otherwise read a file name in the minibuffer defaulting to the file at point.

w m     (magit-am-apply-maildir)

Apply the patches from a maildir.

w w     (magit-am-continue)

Resume the current patch applying sequence.

w s     (magit-am-skip)

Skip the stopped at patch during a patch applying sequence.

w a     (magit-am-abort)

Abort the current patch applying sequence. This discards all changes made since the sequence started.


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8 Miscellaneous


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8.1 Tagging

Also see the git-tag(1) manpage.

t     (magit-tag-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

t t     (magit-tag)

Create a new tag with the given NAME at REV. With a prefix argument annotate the tag.

t k     (magit-tag-delete)

Delete one or more tags. If the region marks multiple tags (and nothing else), then offer to delete those. Otherwise, prompt for a single tag to be deleted, defaulting to the tag at point.

t p     (magit-tag-prune)

Offer to delete tags missing locally from REMOTE, and vice versa.


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8.2 Notes

Also see the git-notes(1) manpage.

T     (magit-notes-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

T T     (magit-notes-edit)

Edit the note attached to a commit, defaulting to the commit at point.

By default use the value of Git variable core.notesRef or "refs/notes/commits" if that is undefined.

T r     (magit-notes-remove)

Remove the note attached to a commit, defaulting to the commit at point.

By default use the value of Git variable core.notesRef or "refs/notes/commits" if that is undefined.

T p     (magit-notes-prune)

Remove notes about unreachable commits.

T s     (magit-notes-set-ref)

Set the current notes ref to a the value read from the user. The ref is made current by setting the value of the Git variable core.notesRef. With a prefix argument change the global value instead of the value in the current repository. When this is undefined, then "refs/notes/commit" is used.

Other magit-notes-* commands, as well as the sub-commands of Git’s note command, default to operate on that ref.

T S     (magit-notes-set-display-refs)

Set notes refs to be display in addition to "core.notesRef". This reads a colon separated list of notes refs from the user. The values are stored in the Git variable notes.displayRef. With a prefix argument GLOBAL change the global values instead of the values in the current repository.

It is possible to merge one note ref into another. That may result in conflicts which have to resolved in the temporary worktree ".git/NOTES_MERGE_WORKTREE".

T m     (magit-notes-merge)

Merge the notes of a ref read from the user into the current notes ref. The current notes ref is the value of Git variable core.notesRef or "refs/notes/commits" if that is undefined.

When a notes merge is in progress then the popup features the following suffix commands, instead of those listed above.

T c     (magit-notes-merge-commit)

Commit the current notes ref merge, after manually resolving conflicts.

T a     (magit-notes-merge-abort)

Abort the current notes ref merge.


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8.3 Submodules

Also see the git-submodule(1) manpage.


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8.3.1 Listing Submodules

The command magit-list-submodule displays a list of the current repository’s submodules in a separate buffer. It’s also possible to display information about submodules directly in the status buffer of the super-repository by adding magit-insert-submodules to the hook magit-status-sections-hook.

Command: magit-list-submodules

This command displays a list of the current repository’s submodules in a separate buffer.

It can be invoked by pressing RET on the section titled "Modules".

User Option: magit-submodule-list-columns

This option controls what columns are displayed by the command magit-list-submodules and how they are displayed.

Each element has the form (HEADER WIDTH FORMAT PROPS).

HEADER is the string displayed in the header. WIDTH is the width of the column. FORMAT is a function that is called with one argument, the repository identification (usually its basename), and with default-directory bound to the toplevel of its working tree. It has to return a string to be inserted or nil. PROPS is an alist that supports the keys :right-align and :pad-right.

Function: magit-insert-submodules

Insert sections for all submodules. For each section insert the path, the branch, and the output of git describe --tags.

Press RET on such a submodule section to show its own status buffer. Press RET on the "Modules" section to display a list of submodules in a separate buffer. This shows additional information not displayed in the super-repository’s status buffer.


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8.3.2 Submodule Popup

o     (magit-submodule-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

o a     (magit-submodule-add)

Add the repository at URL as a submodule. Optional PATH is the path to the submodule relative to the root of the super-project. If it is nil then the path is determined based on URL.

o b     (magit-submodule-setup)

Clone and register missing submodules and checkout appropriate commits.

o i     (magit-submodule-init)

Register submodules listed in ".gitmodules" into ".git/config".

o u     (magit-submodule-update)

Clone missing submodules and checkout appropriate commits. With a prefix argument also register submodules in ".git/config".

o s     (magit-submodule-sync)

Update each submodule’s remote URL according to ".gitmodules".

o f     (magit-submodule-fetch)

Fetch submodule. With a prefix argument fetch all remotes.

o i     (magit-submodule-init)

Unregister the submodule at PATH.


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8.4 Subtree

Also see the git-subtree(1) manpage.

O     (magit-tree-popup)

This prefix command shows the following suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer.

Most infix arguments only apply to some of the git subtree subcommands. When an argument that does not apply to the invoked command is set, then it is silently ignored.

When the --prefix argument is set in the popup buffer, then that is used. Otherwise the prefix is read in the minibuffer.

O a     (magit-subtree-add)

Add COMMIT from REPOSITORY as a new subtree at PREFIX.

O c     (magit-subtree-add-commit)

Add COMMIT as a new subtree at PREFIX.

O m     (magit-subtree-merge)

Merge COMMIT into the PREFIX subtree.

O f     (magit-subtree-pull)

Pull COMMIT from REPOSITORY into the PREFIX subtree.

O p     (magit-subtree-push)

Extract the history of the subtree PREFIX and push it to REF on REPOSITORY.

O s     (magit-subtree-split)

Extract the history of the subtree PREFIX.


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8.5 Common Commands

These are some of the commands that can be used in all buffers whose major-modes derive from magit-mode. There are other common commands beside the ones below, but these didn’t fit well anywhere else.

M-w     (magit-copy-section-value)

This command saves the value of the current section to the kill-ring, and, provided that the current section is a commit, branch, or tag section, it also pushes the (referenced) revision to the magit-revision-stack.

When the current section is a branch or a tag, and a prefix argument is used, then it saves the revision at its tip to the kill-ring instead of the reference name.

C-w     (magit-copy-buffer-revision)

This command save the revision being displayed in the current buffer to the kill-ring and also pushes it to the magit-revision-stack. It is mainly intended for use in magit-revision-mode buffers, the only buffers where it is always unambiguous exactly which revision should be saved.

Most other Magit buffers usually show more than one revision, in some way or another, so this command has to select one of them, and that choice might not always be the one you think would have been the best pick.

Outside of Magit M-w and C-w are usually bound to kill-ring-save and kill-region, and these commands would also be useful in Magit buffers. Therefore when the region is active, then both of these commands behave like kill-ring-save instead of as described above.


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8.6 Wip Modes

Git keeps committed changes around long enough for users to recover changes they have accidentally deleted. It does so by not garbage collecting any committed but no longer referenced objects for a certain period of time, by default 30 days.

But Git does not keep track of uncommitted changes in the working tree and not even the index (the staging area). Because Magit makes it so convenient to modify uncommitted changes, it also makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot in the process.

For that reason Magit provides three global modes that save tracked files to work-in-progress references after or before certain actions. (Untracked files are never saved and these modes also only work after the first commit has been created).

Two separate work-in-progress references are used to track the state of the index and of the working tree: "refs/wip/index/<branchref>" and "refs/wip/wtree/<branchref>", where <branchref> is the full ref of the current branch, e.g. "refs/heads/master". When the HEAD is detached then "HEAD" is in place of <branchref>.

Checking out another branch (or detaching HEAD) causes the use of different wip refs for subsequent changes, but the old refs are not deleted.

Creating a commit and then making a change causes the wip refs to be recreated to fork from the new commit. But the old commits on the wip refs are not lost. They are still available from the reflog. To make it easier to see when the fork point of a wip ref was changed, an additional commit with the message "restart autosaving" is created on it (xxO commits below are such boundary commits).

Starting with

      BI0---BI1    refs/wip/index/refs/heads/master
     /
A---B              refs/heads/master
     \
      BW0---BW1    refs/wip/wtree/refs/heads/master

and committing the staged changes and editing and saving a file would result in

      BI0---BI1        refs/wip/index/refs/heads/master
     /
A---B---C              refs/heads/master
     \   \
      \   CW0---CW1    refs/wip/wtree/refs/heads/master
       \
        BW0---BW1      refs/wip/wtree/refs/heads/master@{2}

The fork-point of the index wip ref is not changed until some change is being staged. Likewise just checking out a branch or creating a commit does not change the fork-point of the working tree wip ref. The fork-points are not adjusted until there actually is a change that should be committed to the respective wip ref.

To view the log for the a branch and its wip refs use the commands magit-wip-log and magit-wip-log-current. You should use --graph when using these commands. Alternatively you can use the reflog to show all commits that ever existed on a wip ref. You can then recover lost changes from the commits shown in the log or reflog.

Command: magit-wip-log

This command shows the log for a branch and its wip refs.

With a negative prefix argument only the worktree wip ref is shown. The absolute numeric value of the prefix argument controls how many "branches" of each wip ref are shown.

Command: magit-wip-log-current

This command shows the log for the current branch and its wip refs.

With a negative prefix argument only the worktree wip ref is shown. The absolute numeric value of the prefix argument controls how many "branches" of each wip ref are shown.

There exists a total of three global modes that save to the wip refs, which might seem excessive, but allows fine tuning of when exactly changes are being committed to the wip refs. Enabling all modes makes it less likely that a change slips through the cracks.

Setting the below variable directly does not take effect; either customize them or call the respective mode function.

User Option: magit-wip-after-save-mode

When this mode is enabled, then saving a buffer that visits a file tracked in a Git repository causes its current state to be committed to the working tree wip ref for the current branch.

User Option: magit-wip-after-apply-mode

When this mode is enabled, then applying (i.e. staging, unstaging, discarding, reversing, and regularly applying) a change to a file tracked in a Git repository causes its current state to be committed to the index and/or working tree wip refs for the current branch.

If you only ever edit files using Emacs and only ever interact with Git using Magit, then the above two modes should be enough to protect each and every change from accidental loss. In practice nobody does that. So an additional mode exists that does commit to the wip refs before making changes that could cause the loss of earlier changes.

User Option: magit-wip-before-change-mode

When this mode is enabled, then certain commands commit the existing changes to the files they are about to make changes to.

Note that even if you enable all three modes this won’t give you perfect protection. The most likely scenario for losing changes despite the use of these modes is making a change outside Emacs and then destroying it also outside Emacs. In such a scenario, Magit, being an Emacs package, didn’t get the opportunity to keep you from shooting yourself in the foot.

When you are unsure whether Magit did commit a change to the wip refs, then you can explicitly request that all changes to all tracked files are being committed.

M-x magit-wip-commit     (magit-wip-commit)

This command commits all changes to all tracked files to the index and working tree work-in-progress refs. Like the modes described above, it does not commit untracked files, but it does check all tracked files for changes. Use this command when you suspect that the modes might have overlooked a change made outside Emacs/Magit.

User Option: magit-wip-after-save-local-mode-lighter

Mode-line lighter for magit-wip-after-save-local-mode.

User Option: magit-wip-after-apply-mode-lighter

Mode-line lighter for magit-wip-after-apply-mode.

User Option: magit-wip-before-change-mode-lighter

Mode-line lighter for magit-wip-before-change-mode.

User Option: magit-wip-namespace

The namespace used for work-in-progress refs. It has to end with a slash. The wip refs are named "<namespace>index/<branchref>" and "<namespace>wtree/<branchref>". When snapshots are created while the HEAD is detached then "HEAD" is used in place of <branchref>.


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8.7 Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files

The magit-file-mode enables certain Magit features in file-visiting buffers belonging to a Git repository. It should be enabled globally using global-magit-file-mode. Currently this mode only establishes a few key bindings, but this might be extended in the future.

User Option: magit-file-mode

Whether to establish certain Magit key bindings in all file-visiting buffers belonging to a Git repository. This establishes the bindings suggested in Getting Started (but only for file-visiting buffers), and additionally binds C-c M-g to magit-file-popup.

C-c M-g     (magit-file-popup)

This prefix command shows a popup buffer featuring suffix commands that operate on the file being visited in the current buffer.

C-c M-g s     (magit-stage-file)

Stage all changes to the file being visited in the current buffer.

C-c M-g u     (magit-unstage-file)

Unstage all changes to the file being visited in the current buffer.

C-c M-g c     (magit-commit-popup)

This prefix command shows suffix commands along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer. See Initiating a Commit.

C-c M-g D     (magit-diff-buffer-file-popup)

This prefix command shows the same suffix commands and infix arguments in a popup buffer as magit-diff-popup. But this variant has to be called from a file-visiting buffer and the visited file is automatically used in the popup to limit the diff to that file.

C-c M-g d     (magit-diff-buffer-file)

This command shows the diff for the file of blob that the current buffer visits. Renames are followed when a prefix argument is used or when --follow is part of magit-diff-arguments.

User Option: magit-diff-buffer-file-locked

This option controls whether magit-diff-buffer-file uses a decicated buffer. See Modes and Buffers.

C-c M-g L     (magit-log-buffer-file-popup)

This prefix command shows the same suffix commands and infix arguments in a popup buffer as magit-log-popup. But this variant has to be called from a file-visiting buffer and the visited file is automatically used in the popup to limit the log to that file.

C-c M-g l     (magit-log-buffer-file)

This command shows the log for the file of blob that the current buffer visits. Renames are followed when a prefix argument is used or when --follow is part of magit-log-arguments.

User Option: magit-log-buffer-file-locked

This option controls whether magit-log-buffer-file uses a decicated buffer. See Modes and Buffers.

C-c M-g b     (magit-blame-popup)

This prefix command shows the magit-blame suffix command along with the appropriate infix arguments in a popup buffer. See Initiating a Commit.

C-c M-g p     (magit-blob-previous)

Visit the previous blob which modified the current file.


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8.8 Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs

The magit-blob-mode enables certain Magit features in blob-visiting buffers. Such buffers can be created using magit-find-file and some of the commands mentioned below, which also take care of turning on this minor mode. Currently this mode only establishes a few key bindings, but this might be extended.

p     (magit-blob-previous)

Visit the previous blob which modified the current file.

n     (magit-blob-next)

Visit the next blob which modified the current file.

q     (magit-kill-this-buffer)

Kill the current buffer.


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9 Customizing

Both Git and Emacs are highly customizable. Magit is both a Git porcelain as well as an Emacs package, so it makes sense to customize it using both Git variables as well as Emacs options. However this flexibility doesn’t come without problems, including but not limited to the following.

I intend to address these and similar issues in a future release.


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9.1 Per-Repository Configuration

Magit can be configured on a per-repository level using both Git variables as well as Emacs options.

To set a Git variable for one repository only, simply set it in /path/to/repo/.git/config instead of $HOME/.gitconfig or /etc/gitconfig. See the git-config(1) manpage.

Similarly, Emacs options can be set for one repository only by editing /path/to/repo/.dir-locals.el. See (emacs)Directory Variables. For example to disable automatic refreshes of file-visiting buffers in just one huge repository use this:

If you want to apply the same settings to several, but not all, repositories then keeping the repository-local config files in sync would quickly become annoying. To avoid that you can create config files for certain classes of repositories (e.g. "huge repositories") and then include those files in the per-repository config files. For example:


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9.2 Essential Settings

The next two sections list and discuss several variables that many users might want to customize, for safety and/or performance reasons.


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9.2.1 Safety

This section discusses various variables that you might want to change (or not change) for safety reasons.

Git keeps committed changes around long enough for users to recover changes they have accidentally been deleted. It does not do the same for uncommitted changes in the working tree and not even the index (the staging area). Because Magit makes it so easy to modify uncommitted changes, it also makes it easy to shoot yourself in the foot in the process. For that reason Magit provides three global modes that save tracked files to work-in-progress references after or before certain actions. See Wip Modes.

These modes are not enabled by default because of performance concerns. Instead a lot of potentially destructive commands require confirmation every time they are used. In many cases this can be disabled by adding a symbol to magit-no-confirm (see Completion and Confirmation). If you enable the various wip modes then you should add safe-with-wip to this list.

Similarly it isn’t necessary to require confirmation before moving a file to the system trash - if you trashed a file by mistake then you can recover it from the there. Option magit-delete-by-moving-to-trash controls whether the system trash is used, which is the case by default. Nevertheless, trash isn’t a member of magit-no-confirm - you might want to change that.

By default buffers visiting files are automatically reverted when the visited file changes on disk. This isn’t as risky as it might seem, but to make an informed decision you should see Risk of Reverting Automatically.


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9.2.2 Performance

After Magit has run git for side-effects, it also refreshes the current Magit buffer and the respective status buffer. This is necessary because otherwise outdated information might be displayed without the user noticing. Magit buffers are updated by recreating their content from scratch, which makes updating simpler and less error-prone, but also more costly. Keeping it simple and just re-creating everything from scratch is an old design decision and departing from that will require major refactoring.

I plan to do that in time for the next major release. I also intend to create logs and diffs asynchronously, which should also help a lot but also requires major refactoring.

Meanwhile you can tell Magit to only automatically refresh the current Magit buffer, but not the status buffer. If you do that, then the status buffer is only refreshed automatically if it itself is the current buffer.

(setq magit-refresh-status-buffer nil)

You should also check whether any third-party packages have added anything to magit-refresh-buffer-hook, magit-status-refresh-hook, magit-pre-refresh-hook, and magit-post-refresh-hook. If so, then check whether those additions impacts performance significantly. Setting magit-refresh-verbose and then inspecting the output in the *Messages* buffer, should help doing so.

Magit also reverts buffers which visit files located inside the current repository, when the visited file changes on disk. That is implemented on top of auto-revert-mode from the built-in library autorevert. To figure out whether that impacts performance, check whether performance is significantly worse, when many buffers exist and/or when some buffers visit files using Tramp. If so, then this should help.

(setq auto-revert-buffer-list-filter
      'magit-auto-revert-repository-buffers-p)

For alternative approaches see Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers.

If you have enabled any features that are disabled by default, then you should check whether they impact performance significantly. It’s likely that they were not enabled by default because it is known that they reduce performance at least in large repositories.

If performance is only slow inside certain unusually large repositories, then you might want to disable certain features on a per-repository or per-repository-class basis only. See Per-Repository Configuration.

Log Performance

When showing logs, Magit limits the number of commits initially shown in the hope that this avoids unnecessary work. When using --graph is used, then this unfortunately does not have the desired effect for large histories. Junio, Git’s maintainer, said on the git mailing list (http://www.spinics.net/lists/git/msg232230.html): "--graph wants to compute the whole history and the max-count only affects the output phase after --graph does its computation".

In other words, it’s not that Git is slow at outputting the differences, or that Magit is slow at parsing the output - the problem is that Git first goes outside and has a smoke.

We actually work around this issue by limiting the number of commits not only by using -<N> but by also using a range. But unfortunately that’s not always possible.

In repositories with more than a few thousand commits --graph should never be a member of magit-log-section-arguments. That variable is used in the status buffer which is refreshed every time you run any Magit command.

Using --color --graph is even slower. Magit uses code that is part of Emacs to turn control characters into faces. That code is pretty slow and this is quite noticeable when showing a log with many branches and merges. For that reason --color is not enabled by default anymore. Consider leaving it at that.

Diff Performance

If diffs are slow, then consider turning off some optional diff features by setting all or some of the following variables to nil: magit-diff-highlight-indentation, magit-diff-highlight-trailing, magit-diff-paint-whitespace, magit-diff-highlight-hunk-body, and magit-diff-refine-hunk.

When showing a commit instead of some arbitrary diff, then some additional information is displayed. Calculating this information can be quite expensive given certain circumstances. If looking at a commit using magit-revision-mode takes considerably more time than looking at the same commit in magit-diff-mode, then consider setting magit-revision-insert-related-refs to nil.

Refs Buffer Performance

When refreshing the "references buffer" is slow, then that’s usually because several hundred refs are being displayed. The best way to address that is to display fewer refs, obviously.

If you are not, or only mildly, interested in seeing the list of tags, then start by not displaying them:

(remove-hook 'magit-refs-sections-hook 'magit-insert-tags)

Then you should also make sure that the listed remote branches actually all exist. You can do so by pruning branches which no longer exist using f-pa.

Committing Performance

When you initiate a commit, then Magit by default automatically shows a diff of the changes you are about to commit. For large commits this can take a long time, which is especially distracting when you are committing large amounts of generated data which you don’t actually intend to inspect before committing. This behavior can be turned off using:

(remove-hook 'server-switch-hook 'magit-commit-diff)

Then you can type C-c C-d to show the diff when you actually want to see it, but only then. Alternatively you can leave the hook alone and just type C-g in those cases when it takes to long to generate the diff. If you do that, then you will end up with a broken diff buffer, but doing it this way has the advantage that you usually get to see the diff, which is useful because it increases the odds that you spot potential issues.

The Built-In VC Package

Emacs comes with a version control interface called "VC", see (emacs)Version Control. It is enabled be default and if you don’t use it in addition to Magit, then you should disable it to keep it from performing unnecessary work:

(setq vc-handled-backends nil)

You can also disable its use only for Git but keep using it when using another version control system:

(setq vc-handled-backends (delq 'Git vc-handled-backends))

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Microsoft Windows Performance

In order to update the status buffer, git has to be run a few dozen times. That is problematic on Microsoft Windows, because that operating system is exceptionally slow at starting processes. Sadly this is an issue that can only be fixed by Microsoft itself, and they don’t appear to be particularly interested in doing so.

Beside the subprocess issue, there also exist other Window-specific performance issues, some of which can be worked around. The maintainers of "Git for Windows" try to reduce their effect, and in order to benefit from the latest performance tweaks, should always use the latest release. Magit too tries to work around some Windows-specific issues.

According to some sources setting the following Git variables can also help.

git config --global core.preloadindex true   # default since v2.1
git config --global core.fscache true        # default since v2.8
git config --global gc.auto 256

You should also check whether an anti-virus program is slowing things down.


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MacOS Performance

On macOS Emacs currently creates child processes using fork. It appears that this also copies GUI resources. The result is that forking takes about 30 times as long on Darwin than on Linux. And because Magit starts many git processes even when doing simple things, that makes quite a difference.

On the master branch Emacs now uses vfork when possible, like this was already done on Linux, and now child creation only takes about twice as long on Darwin. See 2 for more information.

Nobody knows when the changes on the master branch will be released as 26.1, but it is still a long way off. You might want to get your hands on this change before then. The easiest way to get a patched Emacs is to install the emacs-plus formula 3 using homebrew. The change has been backported, so you get it not only when using --HEAD, but also when using --devel or when installing the latest release (by not using a version argument).

Alternatively you can apply the backport 4 manually.


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10 Plumbing

The following sections describe how to use several of Magit’s core abstractions to extend Magit itself or implement a separate extension.

A few of the low-level features used by Magit have been factored out into separate libraries/packages, so that they can be used by other packages, without having to depend on Magit. These libraries are described in separate manuals, see (with-editor)Top and (magit-popup)Top.

If you are trying to find an unused key that you can bound to a command provided by your own Magit extension, then checkout https://github.com/magit/magit/wiki/Plugin-Dispatch-Key-Registry.


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10.1 Calling Git

Magit provides many specialized functions for calling Git. All of these functions are defined in either magit-git.el or magit-process.el and have one of the prefixes magit-run-, magit-call-, magit-start-, or magit-git- (which is also used for other things).

All of these functions accept an indefinite number of arguments, which are strings that specify command line arguments for git (or in some cases an arbitrary executable). These arguments are flattened before being passed on to the executable; so instead of strings they can also be lists of strings and arguments that are nil are silently dropped. Some of these functions also require a single mandatory argument before these command line arguments.

Roughly speaking these functions run Git either to get some value or for side-effect. The functions that return a value are useful to collect the information necessary to populate a Magit buffer, while the others are used to implement Magit commands.

The functions in the value-only group always run synchronously, and they never trigger a refresh. The function in the side-effect group can be further divided into subgroups depending on whether they run Git synchronously or asynchronously, and depending on whether they trigger a refresh when the executable has finished.


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10.1.1 Getting a Value from Git

These functions run Git in order to get a value, either its exit status or its output. Of course you could also use them to run Git commands that have side-effects, but that should be avoided.

Function: magit-git-exit-code &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns its exit code.

Function: magit-git-success &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns t if the exit code is 0, nil otherwise.

Function: magit-git-failure &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns t if the exit code is 1, nil otherwise.

Function: magit-git-true &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns t if the first line printed by git is the string "true", nil otherwise.

Function: magit-git-false &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns t if the first line printed by git is the string "false", nil otherwise.

Function: magit-git-insert &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and inserts its output at point.

Function: magit-git-string &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns the first line of its output. If there is no output or if it begins with a newline character, then this returns nil.

Function: magit-git-lines &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns its output as a list of lines. Empty lines anywhere in the output are omitted.

Function: magit-git-items &rest args

Executes git with ARGS and returns its null-separated output as a list. Empty items anywhere in the output are omitted.

If the value of option magit-git-debug is non-nil and git exits with a non-zero exit status, then warn about that in the echo area and add a section containing git’s standard error in the current repository’s process buffer.

When an error occurs when using one of the above functions, then that is usually due to a bug, i.e. the use of an argument which is not actually supported. Such errors are usually not reported, but when they occur we need to be able to debug them.

User Option: magit-git-debug

Whether to report errors that occur when using magit-git-insert, magit-git-string, magit-git-lines, or magit-git-items. This does not actually raise an error. Instead a message is shown in the echo area, and git’s standard error is insert into a new section in the current repository’s process buffer.

Function: magit-git-str &rest args

This is a variant of magit-git-string that ignores the option magit-git-debug. It is mainly intended to be used while handling errors in functions that do respect that option. Using such a function while handing an error could cause yet another error and therefore lead to an infinite recursion. You probably won’t ever need to use this function.


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10.1.2 Calling Git for Effect

These functions are used to run git to produce some effect. Most Magit commands that actually run git do so by using such a function.

Because we do not need to consume git’s output when using these functions, their output is instead logged into a per-repository buffer, which can be shown using $ from a Magit buffer or M-x magit-process elsewhere.

These functions can have an effect in two distinct ways. Firstly, running git may change something, i.e. create or push a new commit. Secondly, that change may require that Magit buffers are refreshed to reflect the changed state of the repository. But refreshing isn’t always desirable, so only some of these functions do perform such a refresh after git has returned.

Sometimes it is useful to run git asynchronously. For example, when the user has just initiated a push, then there is no reason to make her wait until that has completed. In other cases it makes sense to wait for git to complete before letting the user do something else. For example after staging a change it is useful to wait until after the refresh because that also automatically moves to the next change.

Function: magit-call-git &rest args

Calls git synchronously with ARGS.

Function: magit-call-process program &rest args

Calls PROGRAM synchronously with ARGS.

Function: magit-run-git &rest args

Calls git synchronously with ARGS and then refreshes.

Function: magit-run-git-with-input input &rest args

Calls git synchronously with ARGS and sends it INPUT on standard input.

INPUT should be a buffer or the name of an existing buffer. The content of that buffer is used as the process’ standard input. After the process returns a refresh is performed.

As a special case, INPUT may also be nil. In that case the content of the current buffer is used as standard input and no refresh is performed.

This function actually runs git asynchronously. But then it waits for the process to return, so the function itself is synchronous.

Function: magit-run-git-with-logfile file &rest args

Calls git synchronously with ARGS. The process’ output is saved in FILE. This is rarely useful and so this function might be removed in the future.

This function actually runs git asynchronously. But then it waits for the process to return, so the function itself is synchronous.

Function: magit-git &rest args

Calls git synchronously with ARGS for side-effects only. This function does not refresh the buffer.

Function: magit-git-wash washer &rest args

Execute Git with ARGS, inserting washed output at point. Actually first insert the raw output at point. If there is no output call magit-cancel-section. Otherwise temporarily narrow the buffer to the inserted text, move to its beginning, and then call function WASHER with ARGS as its sole argument.

And now for the asynchronous variants.

Function: magit-run-git-async &rest args

Start Git, prepare for refresh, and return the process object. ARGS is flattened and then used as arguments to Git.

Display the command line arguments in the echo area.

After Git returns some buffers are refreshed: the buffer that was current when this function was called (if it is a Magit buffer and still alive), as well as the respective Magit status buffer. Unmodified buffers visiting files that are tracked in the current repository are reverted if magit-revert-buffers is non-nil.

Function: magit-run-git-with-editor &rest args

Export GIT_EDITOR and start Git. Also prepare for refresh and return the process object. ARGS is flattened and then used as arguments to Git.

Display the command line arguments in the echo area.

After Git returns some buffers are refreshed: the buffer that was current when this function was called (if it is a Magit buffer and still alive), as well as the respective Magit status buffer.

Function: magit-start-git &rest args

Start Git, prepare for refresh, and return the process object.

If INPUT is non-nil, it has to be a buffer or the name of an existing buffer. The buffer content becomes the processes standard input.

Option magit-git-executable specifies the Git executable and option magit-git-global-arguments specifies constant arguments. The remaining arguments ARGS specify arguments to Git. They are flattened before use.

After Git returns, some buffers are refreshed: the buffer that was current when this function was called (if it is a Magit buffer and still alive), as well as the respective Magit status buffer. Unmodified buffers visiting files that are tracked in the current repository are reverted if magit-revert-buffers is non-nil.

Function: magit-start-process &rest args

Start PROGRAM, prepare for refresh, and return the process object.

If optional argument INPUT is non-nil, it has to be a buffer or the name of an existing buffer. The buffer content becomes the processes standard input.

The process is started using start-file-process and then setup to use the sentinel magit-process-sentinel and the filter magit-process-filter. Information required by these functions is stored in the process object. When this function returns the process has not started to run yet so it is possible to override the sentinel and filter.

After the process returns, magit-process-sentinel refreshes the buffer that was current when magit-start-process was called (if it is a Magit buffer and still alive), as well as the respective Magit status buffer. Unmodified buffers visiting files that are tracked in the current repository are reverted if magit-revert-buffers is non-nil.

Variable: magit-this-process

The child process which is about to start. This can be used to change the filter and sentinel.

Variable: magit-process-raise-error

When this is non-nil, then magit-process-sentinel raises an error if git exits with a non-zero exit status. For debugging purposes.


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10.2 Section Plumbing


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10.2.1 Creating Sections

Macro: magit-insert-section &rest args

Insert a section at point.

TYPE is the section type, a symbol. Many commands that act on the current section behave differently depending on that type. Also if a variable magit-TYPE-section-map exists, then use that as the text-property keymap of all text belonging to the section (but this may be overwritten in subsections). TYPE can also have the form (eval FORM) in which case FORM is evaluated at runtime.

Optional VALUE is the value of the section, usually a string that is required when acting on the section.

When optional HIDE is non-nil collapse the section body by default, i.e. when first creating the section, but not when refreshing the buffer. Otherwise, expand it by default. This can be overwritten using magit-section-set-visibility-hook. When a section is recreated during a refresh, then the visibility of predecessor is inherited and HIDE is ignored (but the hook is still honored).

BODY is any number of forms that actually insert the section’s heading and body. Optional NAME, if specified, has to be a symbol, which is then bound to the struct of the section being inserted.

Before BODY is evaluated the start of the section object is set to the value of point and after BODY was evaluated its end is set to the new value of point; BODY is responsible for moving point forward.

If it turns out inside BODY that the section is empty, then magit-cancel-section can be used to abort and remove all traces of the partially inserted section. This can happen when creating a section by washing Git’s output and Git didn’t actually output anything this time around.

Function: magit-insert-heading &rest args

Insert the heading for the section currently being inserted.

This function should only be used inside magit-insert-section.

When called without any arguments, then just set the content slot of the object representing the section being inserted to a marker at point. The section should only contain a single line when this function is used like this.

When called with arguments ARGS, which have to be strings, then insert those strings at point. The section should not contain any text before this happens and afterwards it should again only contain a single line. If the face property is set anywhere inside any of these strings, then insert all of them unchanged. Otherwise use the magit-section-heading face for all inserted text.

The content property of the section struct is the end of the heading (which lasts from start to content) and the beginning of the body (which lasts from content to end). If the value of content is nil, then the section has no heading and its body cannot be collapsed. If a section does have a heading then its height must be exactly one line, including a trailing newline character. This isn’t enforced; you are responsible for getting it right. The only exception is that this function does insert a newline character if necessary.

Function: magit-cancel-section

Cancel the section currently being inserted. This exits the innermost call to magit-insert-section and removes all traces of what has already happened inside that call.

Function: magit-define-section-jumper sym title &optional value

Define an interactive function to go to section SYM. TITLE is the displayed title of the section.


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10.2.2 Section Selection

Function: magit-current-section

Return the section at point.

Function: magit-region-sections

Return a list of the selected sections.

When the region is active and constitutes a valid section selection, then return a list of all selected sections. This is the case when the region begins in the heading of a section and ends in the heading of a sibling of that first section. When the selection is not valid then return nil. Most commands that can act on the selected sections, then instead just act on the current section, the one point is in.

When the region looks like it would in any other buffer then the selection is invalid. When the selection is valid then the region uses the magit-section-highlight. This does not apply to diffs where things get a bit more complicated, but even here if the region looks like it usually does, then that’s not a valid selection as far as this function is concerned.

Function: magit-region-values &rest types

Return a list of the values of the selected sections.

Also see magit-region-sections whose doc-string explains when a region is a valid section selection. If the region is not active or is not a valid section selection, then return nil. If optional TYPES is non-nil then the selection not only has to be valid; the types of all selected sections additionally have to match one of TYPES, or nil is returned.


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10.2.3 Matching Sections

M-x magit-describe-section     (magit-describe-section)

Show information about the section at point. This command is intended for debugging purposes.

Function: magit-section-ident

Return an unique identifier for SECTION. The return value has the form ((TYPE . VALUE)...).

Function: magit-get-section

Return the section identified by IDENT. IDENT has to be a list as returned by magit-section-ident.

Function: magit-section-match condition &optional section

Return t if SECTION matches CONDITION. SECTION defaults to the section at point. If SECTION is not specified and there also is no section at point, then return nil.

CONDITION can take the following forms:

Each TYPE is a symbol. Note that it is not necessary to specify all TYPEs up to the root section as printed by magit-describe-type, unless of course you want to be that precise.

Function: magit-section-when condition &rest body

If the section at point matches CONDITION evaluate BODY.

If the section matches, then evaluate BODY forms sequentially with it bound to the section and return the value of the last form. If there are no BODY forms, then return the value of the section. If the section does not match or if there is no section at point then return nil.

See magit-section-match for the forms CONDITION can take.

Function: magit-section-case &rest clauses

Choose among clauses on the type of the section at point.

Each clause looks like (CONDITION BODY…). The type of the section is compared against each CONDITION; the BODY forms of the first match are evaluated sequentially and the value of the last form is returned. Inside BODY the symbol it is bound to the section at point. If no clause succeeds or if there is no section at point return nil.

See magit-section-match for the forms CONDITION can take. Additionally a CONDITION of t is allowed in the final clause and matches if no other CONDITION match, even if there is no section at point.

Variable: magit-root-section

The root section in the current buffer. All other sections are descendants of this section. The value of this variable is set by magit-insert-section and you should never modify it.

For diff related sections a few additional tools exist.

Function: magit-diff-type &optional section

Return the diff type of SECTION.

The returned type is one of the symbols staged, unstaged, committed, or undefined. This type serves a similar purpose as the general type common to all sections (which is stored in the type slot of the corresponding magit-section struct) but takes additional information into account. When the SECTION isn’t related to diffs and the buffer containing it also isn’t a diff-only buffer, then return nil.

Currently the type can also be one of tracked and untracked, but these values are not handled explicitly in every place they should be. A possible fix could be to just return nil here.

The section has to be a diff or hunk section, or a section whose children are of type diff. If optional SECTION is nil, return the diff type for the current section. In buffers whose major mode is magit-diff-mode SECTION is ignored and the type is determined using other means. In magit-revision-mode buffers the type is always committed.

Function: magit-diff-scope &optional section strict

Return the diff scope of SECTION or the selected section(s).

A diff’s "scope" describes what part of a diff is selected, it is a symbol, one of region, hunk, hunks, file, files, or list. Do not confuse this with the diff "type", as returned by magit-diff-type.

If optional SECTION is non-nil, then return the scope of that, ignoring the sections selected by the region. Otherwise return the scope of the current section, or if the region is active and selects a valid group of diff related sections, the type of these sections, i.e. hunks or files. If SECTION (or if the current section that is nil) is a hunk section and the region starts and ends inside the body of a that section, then the type is region.

If optional STRICT is non-nil then return nil if the diff type of the section at point is untracked or the section at point is not actually a diff but a diffstat section.


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10.3 Refreshing Buffers

All commands that create a new Magit buffer or change what is being displayed in an existing buffer do so by calling magit-mode-setup. Among other things, that function sets the buffer local values of default-directory (to the top-level of the repository), magit-refresh-function, and magit-refresh-args.

Buffers are refreshed by calling the function that is the local value of magit-refresh-function (a function named magit-*-refresh-buffer, where * may be something like diff) with the value of magit-refresh-args as arguments.

Macro: magit-mode-setup buffer switch-func mode refresh-func &optional refresh-args

This function displays and selects BUFFER, turns on MODE, and refreshes a first time.

This function displays and optionally selects BUFFER by calling magit-mode-display-buffer with BUFFER, MODE and SWITCH-FUNC as arguments. Then it sets the local value of magit-refresh-function to REFRESH-FUNC and that of magit-refresh-args to REFRESH-ARGS. Finally it creates the buffer content by calling REFRESH-FUNC with REFRESH-ARGS as arguments.

All arguments are evaluated before switching to BUFFER.

Function: magit-mode-display-buffer buffer mode &optional switch-function

This function display BUFFER in some window and select it. BUFFER may be a buffer or a string, the name of a buffer. The buffer is returned.

Unless BUFFER is already displayed in the selected frame, store the previous window configuration as a buffer local value, so that it can later be restored by magit-mode-bury-buffer.

The buffer is displayed and selected using SWITCH-FUNCTION. If that is nil then pop-to-buffer is used if the current buffer’s major mode derives from magit-mode. Otherwise switch-to-buffer is used.

Variable: magit-refresh-function

The value of this buffer-local variable is the function used to refresh the current buffer. It is called with magit-refresh-args as arguments.

Variable: magit-refresh-args

The list of arguments used by magit-refresh-function to refresh the current buffer. magit-refresh-function is called with these arguments.

The value is usually set using magit-mode-setup, but in some cases it’s also useful to provide commands which can change the value. For example, the magit-diff-refresh-popup can be used to change any of the arguments used to display the diff, without having to specify again which differences should be shown. magit-diff-more-context, magit-diff-less-context, and magit-diff-default-context change just the -U<N> argument. In both case this is done by changing the value of this variable and then calling this magit-refresh-function.


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10.4 Conventions


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10.4.1 Confirmation and Completion

Dangerous operations that may lead to data loss have to be confirmed by default. With a multi-section selection, this is done using questions that can be answered with "yes" or "no". When the region isn’t active, or if it doesn’t constitute a valid section selection, then such commands instead read a single item in the minibuffer. When the value of the current section is among the possible choices, then that is presented as default choice. To confirm the action on a single item, the user has to answer RET (instead of "yes"), and to abort, C-g (instead of "no"). But alternatively the user may also select another item, just like if the command had been invoked with no suitable section at point at all.


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10.4.2 Theming Faces

The default theme uses blue for local branches, green for remote branches, and goldenrod (brownish yellow) for tags. When creating a new theme, you should probably follow that example. If your theme already uses other colors, then stick to that.

In older releases these reference faces used to have a background color and a box around them. The basic default faces no longer do so, to make Magit buffers much less noisy, and you should follow that example at least with regards to boxes. (Boxes were used in the past to work around a conflict between the highlighting overlay and text property backgrounds. That’s no longer necessary because highlighting no longer causes other background colors to disappear.) Alternatively you can keep the background color and/or box, but then have to take special care to adjust magit-branch-current accordingly. By default it looks mostly like magit-branch-local, but with a box (by default the former is the only face that uses a box, exactly so that it sticks out). If the former also uses a box, then you have to make sure that it differs in some other way from the latter.

The most difficult faces to theme are those related to diffs, headings, highlighting, and the region. There are faces that fall into all four groups - expect to spend some time getting this right.

The region face in the default theme, in both the light and dark variants, as well as in many other themes, distributed with Emacs or by third-parties, is very ugly. It is common to use a background color that really sticks out, which is ugly but if that were the only problem then it would be acceptable. Unfortunately many themes also set the foreground color, which ensures that all text within the region is readable. Without doing that there might be cases where some foreground color is too close to the region background color to still be readable. But it also means that text within the region loses all syntax highlighting.

I consider the work that went into getting the region face right to be a good indicator for the general quality of a theme. My recommendation for the region face is this: use a background color slightly different from the background color of the default face, and do not set the foreground color at all. So for a light theme you might use a light (possibly tinted) gray as the background color of default and a somewhat darker gray for the background of region. That should usually be enough to not collide with the foreground color of any other face. But if some other faces also set a light gray as background color, then you should also make sure it doesn’t collide with those (in some cases it might be acceptable though).

Magit only uses the region face when the region is "invalid" by its own definition. In a Magit buffer the region is used to either select multiple sibling sections, so that commands which support it act on all of these sections instead of just the current section, or to select lines within a single hunk section. In all other cases, the section is considered invalid and Magit won’t act on it. But such invalid sections happen, either because the user has not moved point enough yet to make it valid or because she wants to use a non-magit command to act on the region, e.g. kill-region.

So using the regular region face for invalid sections is a feature. It tells the user that Magit won’t be able to act on it. It’s acceptable if that face looks a bit odd and even (but less so) if it collides with the background colors of section headings and other things that have a background color.

Magit highlights the current section. If a section has subsections, then all of them are highlighted. This is done using faces that have "highlight" in their names. For most sections, magit-section-highlight is used for both the body and the heading. Like the region face, it should only set the background color to something similar to that of default. The highlight background color must be different from both the region background color and the default background color.

For diff related sections Magit uses various faces to highlight different parts of the selected section(s). Note that hunk headings, unlike all other section headings, by default have a background color, because it is useful to have very visible separators between hunks. That face magit-diff-hunk-heading, should be different from both magit-diff-hunk-heading-highlight and magit-section-highlight, as well as from magit-diff-context and magit-diff-context-highlight. By default we do that by changing the foreground color. Changing the background color would lead to complications, and there are already enough we cannot get around. (Also note that it is generally a good idea for section headings to always be bold, but only for sections that have subsections).

When there is a valid region selecting diff-related sibling sections, i.e. multiple files or hunks, then the bodies of all these sections use the respective highlight faces, but additionally the headings instead use one of the faces magit-diff-file-heading-selection or magit-diff-hunk-heading-selection. These faces have to be different from the regular highlight variants to provide explicit visual indication that the region is active.

When theming diff related faces, start by setting the option magit-diff-refine-hunk to all. You might personally prefer to only refine the current hunk or not use hunk refinement at all, but some of the users of your theme want all hunks to be refined, so you have to cater to that.

(Also turn on magit-diff-highlight-indentation, magit-diff-highlight-trailing, and magit-diff-paint-whitespace; and insert some whitespace errors into the code you use for testing.)

For e.g. "added lines" you have to adjust three faces: magit-diff-added, magit-diff-added-highlight, and smerge-refined-added. Make sure that the latter works well with both of the former, as well as smerge-other and diff-added. Then do the same for the removed lines, context lines, lines added by us, and lines added by them. Also make sure the respective added, removed, and context faces use approximately the same saturation for both the highlighted and unhighlighted variants. Also make sure the file and diff headings work nicely with context lines (e.g. make them look different). Line faces should set both the foreground and the background color. For example, for added lines use two different greens.

It’s best if the foreground color of both the highlighted and the unhighlighted variants are the same, so you will need to have to find a color that works well on the highlight and unhighlighted background, the refine background, and the highlight context background. When there is an hunk internal region, then the added- and removed-lines background color is used only within that region. Outside the region the highlighted context background color is used. This makes it easier to see what is being staged. With an hunk internal region the hunk heading is shown using magit-diff-hunk-heading-selection, and so are the thin lines that are added around the lines that fall within the region. The background color of that has to be distinct enough from the various other involved background colors.

Nobody said this would be easy. If your theme restricts itself to a certain set of colors, then you should make an exception here. Otherwise it would be impossible to make the diffs look good in each and every variation. Actually you might want to just stick to the default definitions for these faces. You have been warned. Also please note that if you do not get this right, this will in some cases look to users like bugs in Magit - so please do it right or not at all.


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Appendix A FAQ

The next two nodes lists frequently asked questions. For a list of frequently and recently asked questions, i.e. questions that haven’t made it into the manual yet, see https://github.com/magit/magit/wiki/FAQ.

Please also use the Debugging Tools.


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A.1 FAQ - How to …?


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A.1.1 How to show git’s output?

To show the output of recently run git commands, press $ (or, if that isn’t available, M-x magit-process-buffer). This will show a buffer containing a section per git invocation; as always press TAB to expand or collapse them.

By default git’s output is only inserted into the process buffer if it is run for side-effects. When the output is consumed in some way then also inserting it into the process buffer would be to expensive. For debugging purposes it’s possible to do so anyway by setting magit-git-debug to t.


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A.1.2 How to install the gitman info manual?

Git’s manpages can be exported as an info manual called gitman. Magit’s own info manual links to nodes in that manual instead of the actual manpages because Info doesn’t support linking to manpages.

Unfortunately some distributions do not install the gitman manual by default and you will have to install a separate documentation package to get it.

Magit patches Info adding the ability to visit links to the gitman Info manual by instead viewing the respective manpage. If you prefer that approach, then set the value of magit-view-git-manual-method to one of the supported packages man or woman, e.g.:

(setq magit-view-git-manual-method 'man)

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A.1.3 How to show diffs for gpg-encrypted files?

Git supports showing diffs for encrypted files, but has to be told to do so. Since Magit just uses Git to get the diffs, configuring Git also affects the diffs displayed inside Magit.

git config --global diff.gpg.textconv "gpg --no-tty --decrypt"
echo "*.gpg filter=gpg diff=gpg" > .gitattributes

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A.1.4 How does branching and pushing work?

Please see Branching and http://emacsair.me/2016/01/18/magit-2.4


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A.1.5 Can Magit be used as ediff-version-control-package?

No, it cannot. For that to work the functions ediff-magit-internal and ediff-magit-merge-internal would have to be implemented, and they are not. These two functions are only used by the three commands ediff-revision, ediff-merge-revisions-with-ancestor, and ediff-merge-revisions.

These commands only delegate the task of populating buffers with certain revisions to the "internal" functions. The equally important task of determining which revisions are to be compared/merged is not delegated. Instead this is done without any support whatsoever, from the version control package/system - meaning that the user has to enter the revisions explicitly. Instead of implementing ediff-magit-internal we provide magit-ediff-compare, which handles both tasks like it is 2005.

The other commands ediff-merge-revisions and ediff-merge-revisions-with-ancestor are normally not what you want when using a modern version control system like Git. Instead of letting the user resolve only those conflicts which Git could not resolve on its own, they throw away all work done by Git and then expect the user to manually merge all conflicts, including those that had already been resolved. That made sense back in the days when version control systems couldn’t merge (or so I have been told), but not anymore. Once in a blue moon you might actually want to see all conflicts, in which case you can use these commands, which then use ediff-vc-merge-internal. So we don’t actually have to implement ediff-magit-merge-internal. Instead we provide the more useful command magit-ediff-resolve which only shows yet-to-be resolved conflicts.


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A.2 FAQ - Issues and Errors


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A.2.1 Magit is slow

See Performance.


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A.2.2 I changed several thousand files at once and now Magit is unusable

Magit is currently not expected to work under such conditions. It sure would be nice if it did, and v2.5 will hopefully be a big step into that direction. But it might take until v3.1 to accomplish fully satisfactory performance, because that requires some heavy refactoring.

But for now we recommend you use the command line to complete this one commit. Also see Performance.


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A.2.3 I am having problems committing

That likely means that Magit is having problems finding an appropriate emacsclient executable. See (with-editor)Configuring With-Editor and (with-editor)Debugging.


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A.2.4 I am using MS Windows and cannot push with Magit

It’s almost certain that Magit is only incidental to this issue. It is much more likely that this is a configuration issue, even if you can push on the command line.

Detailed setup instructions can be found at https://github.com/magit/magit/wiki/Pushing-with-Magit-from-Windows.


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A.2.5 I am using OS X and SOMETHING works in shell, but not in Magit

This usually occurs because Emacs doesn’t have the same environment variables as your shell. Try installing and configuring https://github.com/purcell/exec-path-from-shell. By default it synchronizes $PATH, which helps Magit find the same git as the one you are using on the shell.

If SOMETHING is "passphrase caching with gpg-agent for commit and/or tag signing", then you’ll also need to synchronize $GPG_AGENT_INFO.


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A.2.6 Diffs contain control sequences

This happens when you configure Git to always color diffs and/or all of its output. The valid values for relevant Git variables color.ui and color.diff are false, true and always, and the default is true. You should leave it that because then you get colorful output in terminals but git’s output is consumed by something else, then no colors are used.

If you actually use some other tool which expects that requires that you force git to output control sequences (which is highly unlikely), then you can override these settings just for Magit by using:

(setq magit-git-global-arguments
      (nconc magit-git-global-arguments
             '("-c" "color.ui=false"
               "-c" "color.diff=false")))

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A.2.7 Expanding a file to show the diff causes it to disappear

This is probably caused by a change of a diff.* Git variable. You probably set that variable for a reason, and should therefore only undo that setting in Magit by customizing magit-git-global-arguments.


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A.2.8 Point is wrong in the COMMIT_EDITMSG buffer

Neither Magit nor ‘git-commit‘ fiddle with point in the buffer used to write commit messages, so something else must be doing it.

You have probably globally enabled a mode which does restore point in file-visiting buffers. It might be a bit surprising, but when you write a commit message, then you are actually editing a file.

So you have to figure out which package is doing. saveplace, pointback, and session are likely candidates. These snippets might help:

(setq session-name-disable-regexp "\\(?:\\`'\\.git/[A-Z_]+\\'\\)")

(with-eval-after-load 'pointback
  (lambda ()
    (when (or git-commit-mode git-rebase-mode)
      (pointback-mode -1))))

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A.2.9 The mode-line information isn’t always up-to-date

Magit is not responsible for the version control information that is being displayed in the mode-line and looks something like Git-master. The built-in "Version Control" package, also known as "VC", updates that information, and can be told to do so more often:

(setq auto-revert-check-vc-info t)

But doing so isn’t good for performance. For more (overly optimistic) information see (emacs)VC Mode Line.

If you don’t really care about seeing that information in the mode-line, but just don’t want to see incorrect information, then consider disabling VC when using Git:

(setq vc-handled-backends (delq 'Git vc-handled-backends))

Or to disable it completely:

(setq vc-handled-backends nil)

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A.2.10 Emacs 24.5 hangs when loading Magit

This is actually triggered by loading Tramp. See https://debbugs.gnu.org/cgi/bugreport.cgi?bug=20015 for details. You can work around the problem by setting tramp-ssh-controlmaster-options. Changing your DNS server (e.g. to Google’s 8.8.8.8) may also be sufficient to work around the issue.


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B Debugging Tools

Magit and its dependencies provide a few debugging tools, and we appreciate it very much if you use those tools before reporting an issue. Please include all relevant output when reporting an issue.

M-x magit-version     (magit-version)

This command shows the currently used versions of Magit, Git, and Emacs in the echo area. Non-interactively this just returns the Magit version.

M-x magit-emacs-Q-command     (magit-emacs-Q-command)

This command shows a debugging shell command in the echo area and adds it to the kill ring. Paste that command into a shell an run it.

This shell command starts emacs with only magit and its dependencies loaded. Neither your configuration nor other installed packages are loaded. This makes it easier to determine whether some issue lays with Magit or something else.

M-x magit-debug-git-executable     (magit-debug-git-executable)

This command displays a buffer containing information about the available and used git executable(s), and can be useful when investigating exec-path issues.

Also see Git Executable.

M-x with-editor-debug     (with-editor-debug)

This command displays a buffer containing information about the available and used git executable(s), and can be useful when investigating why Magit (or rather with-editor) cannot find an appropriate emacsclient executable.

Also see (with-editor)Debugging.

Please also see the FAQ.


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Appendix C Keystroke Index

Jump to:   !   $   +   -   0   1   2   3   4   =   ^  
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  
Index Entry  Section

!
!: Running Git Manually
! !: Running Git Manually
! a: Running Git Manually
! b: Running Git Manually
! g: Running Git Manually
! k: Running Git Manually
! p: Running Git Manually
! s: Running Git Manually
! S: Running Git Manually

$
$: Viewing Git Output

+
+: Log Buffer
+: Refreshing Diffs

-
-: Refreshing Diffs

0
0: Refreshing Diffs

1
1: Section Visibility

2
2: Section Visibility

3
3: Section Visibility

4
4: Section Visibility

=
=: Log Buffer
=: Log Buffer

^
^: Section Movement

A
a: Applying
A: Cherry Picking
A A: Cherry Picking
A a: Cherry Picking
A A: Cherry Picking
A a: Cherry Picking
A s: Cherry Picking

B
B: Bisecting
b: The Branch Popup
B B: Bisecting
B b: Bisecting
b b: The Branch Popup
b c: The Branch Popup
B g: Bisecting
B k: Bisecting
b k: The Branch Popup
b n: The Branch Popup
B r: Bisecting
b r: The Branch Popup
B s: Bisecting
b s: The Branch Popup
b x: The Branch Popup

C
c: Initiating a Commit
c: Editing Rebase Sequences
c a: Initiating a Commit
c A: Initiating a Commit
c c: Initiating a Commit
c e: Initiating a Commit
c f: Initiating a Commit
c F: Initiating a Commit
c s: Initiating a Commit
c S: Initiating a Commit
c w: Initiating a Commit
C-<return>: Diff Buffer
C-<tab>: Section Visibility
C-c C-a: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-b: Log Buffer
C-c C-b: Refreshing Diffs
C-c C-c: Popup Buffers and Prefix Commands
C-c C-c: Select from Log
C-c C-c: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-c: Editing Rebase Sequences
C-c C-d: Refreshing Diffs
C-c C-d: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-f: Log Buffer
C-c C-f: Refreshing Diffs
C-c C-i: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-k: Select from Log
C-c C-k: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-k: Editing Rebase Sequences
C-c C-n: Log Buffer
C-c C-o: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-p: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-r: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-s: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-t: Editing Commit Messages
C-c C-w: Editing Commit Messages
C-c M-g: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g b: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g c: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g D: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g d: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g L: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g l: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g p: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g s: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-c M-g u: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
C-s M-s: Editing Commit Messages
C-w: Common Commands
C-x g: Status Buffer
C-x u: Editing Rebase Sequences

D
d: Diffing
D: Refreshing Diffs
d c: Diffing
d d: Diffing
D f: Refreshing Diffs
D g: Refreshing Diffs
d p: Diffing
d r: Diffing
D r: Refreshing Diffs
d s: Diffing
D s: Refreshing Diffs
d t: Diffing
D t: Refreshing Diffs
d u: Diffing
d w: Diffing
D w: Refreshing Diffs
DEL: Log Buffer
DEL: Diff Buffer
DEL: Blaming
DEL: Editing Rebase Sequences

E
e: Ediffing
E: Ediffing
e: Editing Rebase Sequences
E c: Ediffing
E i: Ediffing
E m: Ediffing
E r: Ediffing
E s: Ediffing
E u: Ediffing
E w: Ediffing
E z: Ediffing

F
f: Editing Rebase Sequences
f: Fetching
F: Pulling
f a: Fetching
f e: Fetching
F e: Pulling
f m: Fetching
f o: Fetching
f p: Fetching
F p: Pulling
f r: Fetching
f u: Fetching
F u: Pulling

G
g: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers
G: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers

J
j: Diff Buffer

K
k: Viewing Git Output
k: Applying
k: Editing Rebase Sequences
k: Stashing

L
l: Logging
L: Refreshing Logs
L: Log Buffer
L: Log Margin
l a: Logging
l b: Logging
L d: Log Margin
L g: Refreshing Logs
l h: Logging
l H: Reflog
l l: Logging
l L: Logging
L L: Log Margin
L l: Log Margin
l o: Logging
l O: Reflog
l r: Reflog
L s: Refreshing Logs
L t: Refreshing Logs
L w: Refreshing Logs

M
m: Merging
M: Remotes
m a: Merging
M a: Remotes
m e: Merging
M k: Remotes
m m: Merging
m m: Merging
m n: Merging
m p: Merging
M r: Remotes
M u: Remotes
M-1: Section Visibility
M-2: Section Visibility
M-3: Section Visibility
M-4: Section Visibility
M-<tab>: Section Visibility
M-n: Section Movement
M-n: Editing Commit Messages
M-n: Editing Rebase Sequences
M-p: Section Movement
M-p: Editing Commit Messages
M-p: Editing Rebase Sequences
M-w: Blaming
M-w: Common Commands
M-x magit-blame: Blaming
M-x magit-blame-popup: Blaming
M-x magit-clone: Repository Setup
M-x magit-debug-git-executable: Git Executable
M-x magit-debug-git-executable: Debugging Tools
M-x magit-describe-section: Section Types and Values
M-x magit-describe-section: Matching Sections
M-x magit-emacs-Q-command: Debugging Tools
M-x magit-file-checkout: Resetting
M-x magit-find-file: Visiting Blobs
M-x magit-find-file-other-window: Visiting Blobs
M-x magit-init: Repository Setup
M-x magit-reset-hard: Resetting
M-x magit-reset-head: Resetting
M-x magit-reset-index: Staging and Unstaging
M-x magit-reset-index: Resetting
M-x magit-reset-soft: Resetting
M-x magit-reverse-in-index: Staging and Unstaging
M-x magit-stage-file: Staging from File-Visiting Buffers
M-x magit-toggle-buffer-lock: Modes and Buffers
M-x magit-unstage-file: Staging from File-Visiting Buffers
M-x magit-version: Git Executable
M-x magit-version: Debugging Tools
M-x magit-wip-commit: Wip Modes
M-x with-editor-debug: Debugging Tools

N
n: Section Movement
n: Blaming
N: Blaming
n: Editing Rebase Sequences
n: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs

O
o: Submodule Popup
O: Subtree
o a: Submodule Popup
O a: Subtree
o b: Submodule Popup
O c: Subtree
o f: Submodule Popup
O f: Subtree
o i: Submodule Popup
o i: Submodule Popup
O m: Subtree
O p: Subtree
o s: Submodule Popup
O s: Subtree
o u: Submodule Popup

P
p: Section Movement
p: Blaming
P: Blaming
p: Editing Rebase Sequences
P: Pushing
p: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs
P e: Pushing
P m: Pushing
P o: Pushing
P p: Pushing
P r: Pushing
P t: Pushing
P T: Pushing
P u: Pushing

Q
q: Quitting Windows
q: Log Buffer
q: Blaming
q: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs

R
r: Rebasing
r: Editing Rebase Sequences
r a: Rebasing
r e: Rebasing
r e: Rebasing
r f: Rebasing
r i: Rebasing
r m: Rebasing
r p: Rebasing
r r: Rebasing
r s: Rebasing
r s: Rebasing
r u: Rebasing
r w: Rebasing
RET: Diff Buffer
RET: References Buffer
RET: Blaming
RET: Editing Rebase Sequences

S
s: Staging and Unstaging
S: Staging and Unstaging
s: Editing Rebase Sequences
S-<tab>: Section Visibility
SPC: Log Buffer
SPC: Diff Buffer
SPC: Blaming
SPC: Editing Rebase Sequences

T
t: Blaming
t: Tagging
T: Notes
T a: Notes
T c: Notes
t k: Tagging
T m: Notes
t p: Tagging
T p: Notes
T r: Notes
T s: Notes
T S: Notes
t t: Tagging
T T: Notes
TAB: Section Visibility

U
u: Staging and Unstaging
U: Staging and Unstaging

V
v: Applying
V: Reverting
V A: Reverting
V a: Reverting
V s: Reverting
V V: Reverting
V v: Reverting

W
W: Creating and Sending Patches
w: Applying Patches
w a: Applying Patches
w m: Applying Patches
W p: Creating and Sending Patches
W r: Creating and Sending Patches
w s: Applying Patches
w w: Applying Patches
w w: Applying Patches

X
x: Editing Rebase Sequences
x: Resetting

Y
Y: Cherries
y: References Buffer
y: Editing Rebase Sequences
y c: References Buffer
y o: References Buffer
y y: References Buffer

Z
z: Stashing
z a: Stashing
z b: Stashing
z f: Stashing
z i: Stashing
z I: Stashing
z k: Stashing
z l: Stashing
z p: Stashing
z v: Stashing
z w: Stashing
z W: Stashing
z x: Stashing
z z: Stashing
z Z: Stashing

Jump to:   !   $   +   -   0   1   2   3   4   =   ^  
A   B   C   D   E   F   G   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  

Next: , Previous: , Up: Top   [Contents][Index]

Appendix D Command Index

Jump to:   A   F   G   I   M   S   W  
Index Entry  Section

A
auto-revert-mode: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers

F
forward-line: Editing Rebase Sequences

G
git-commit-ack: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-cc: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-next-message: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-prev-message: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-reported: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-review: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-save-message: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-signoff: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-suggested: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-test: Editing Commit Messages
git-rebase-backward-line: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-edit: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-exec: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-fixup: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-insert: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-kill-line: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-move-line-down: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-move-line-up: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-pick: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-reword: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-show-commit: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-show-or-scroll-down: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-show-or-scroll-up: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-squash: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-undo: Editing Rebase Sequences

I
ido-enter-magit-status: Status Buffer

M
magit-am-abort: Applying Patches
magit-am-apply-maildir: Applying Patches
magit-am-apply-patches: Applying Patches
magit-am-continue: Applying Patches
magit-am-popup: Applying Patches
magit-am-skip: Applying Patches
magit-apply: Applying
magit-bisect-bad: Bisecting
magit-bisect-good: Bisecting
magit-bisect-popup: Bisecting
magit-bisect-reset: Bisecting
magit-bisect-run: Bisecting
magit-bisect-skip: Bisecting
magit-bisect-start: Bisecting
magit-blame: Blaming
magit-blame-copy-hash: Blaming
magit-blame-next-chunk: Blaming
magit-blame-next-chunk-same-commit: Blaming
magit-blame-popup: Blaming
magit-blame-popup: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-blame-previous-chunk: Blaming
magit-blame-previous-chunk-same-commit: Blaming
magit-blame-quit: Blaming
magit-blame-toggle-headings: Blaming
magit-blob-next: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs
magit-blob-previous: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-blob-previous: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs
magit-branch: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-and-checkout: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-delete: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-orphan: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-popup: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-popup: The Branch Config Popup
magit-branch-rename: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-reset: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-spinoff: The Branch Popup
magit-checkout: The Branch Popup
magit-cherry: Cherries
magit-cherry-apply: Cherry Picking
magit-cherry-pick: Cherry Picking
magit-cherry-pick-popup: Cherry Picking
magit-clone: Repository Setup
magit-commit: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-amend: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-augment: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-extend: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-fixup: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-instant-fixup: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-instant-squash: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-popup: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-popup: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-commit-reword: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-squash: Initiating a Commit
magit-copy-buffer-revision: Common Commands
magit-copy-section-value: Common Commands
magit-cycle-margin-style: Log Margin
magit-debug-git-executable: Git Executable
magit-debug-git-executable: Debugging Tools
magit-describe-section: Section Types and Values
magit-describe-section: Matching Sections
magit-diff: Diffing
magit-diff-buffer-file: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-diff-buffer-file-popup: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-diff-default-context: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-dwim: Diffing
magit-diff-flip-revs: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-less-context: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-more-context: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-paths: Diffing
magit-diff-popup: Diffing
magit-diff-refresh: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-refresh-popup: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-save-default-arguments: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-set-default-arguments: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-show-or-scroll-down: Log Buffer
magit-diff-show-or-scroll-down: Blaming
magit-diff-show-or-scroll-up: Log Buffer
magit-diff-show-or-scroll-up: Blaming
magit-diff-staged: Diffing
magit-diff-switch-range-type: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-toggle-refine-hunk: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-unstaged: Diffing
magit-diff-visit-file: Diff Buffer
magit-diff-visit-file-worktree: Diff Buffer
magit-diff-while-committing: Refreshing Diffs
magit-diff-while-committing: Editing Commit Messages
magit-diff-worktree: Diffing
magit-discard: Applying
magit-dispatch-popup: Popup Buffers and Prefix Commands
magit-ediff-compare: Ediffing
magit-ediff-dwim: Ediffing
magit-ediff-popup: Ediffing
magit-ediff-resolve: Ediffing
magit-ediff-show-commit: Ediffing
magit-ediff-show-staged: Ediffing
magit-ediff-show-stash: Ediffing
magit-ediff-show-unstaged: Ediffing
magit-ediff-show-working-tree: Ediffing
magit-ediff-stage: Ediffing
magit-emacs-Q-command: Debugging Tools
magit-fetch: Fetching
magit-fetch-all: Fetching
magit-fetch-branch: Fetching
magit-fetch-from-pushremote: Fetching
magit-fetch-from-upstream: Fetching
magit-fetch-popup: Fetching
magit-fetch-refspec: Fetching
magit-file-checkout: Resetting
magit-file-popup: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-find-file: Visiting Blobs
magit-find-file-other-window: Visiting Blobs
magit-format-patch: Creating and Sending Patches
magit-git-command: Running Git Manually
magit-git-command-topdir: Running Git Manually
magit-go-backward: Log Buffer
magit-go-backward: Refreshing Diffs
magit-go-forward: Log Buffer
magit-go-forward: Refreshing Diffs
magit-init: Repository Setup
magit-jump-to-diffstat-or-diff: Diff Buffer
magit-kill-this-buffer: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Blobs
magit-list-repositories: Repository List
magit-list-submodules: Listing Submodules
magit-log: Logging
magit-log-all: Logging
magit-log-all-branches: Logging
magit-log-branches: Logging
magit-log-buffer-file: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-log-buffer-file-popup: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-log-bury-buffer: Log Buffer
magit-log-current: Logging
magit-log-double-commit-limit: Log Buffer
magit-log-half-commit-limit: Log Buffer
magit-log-head: Logging
magit-log-move-to-parent: Log Buffer
magit-log-popup: Logging
magit-log-refresh: Refreshing Logs
magit-log-refresh-popup: Refreshing Logs
magit-log-refresh-popup: Log Buffer
magit-log-save-default-arguments: Refreshing Logs
magit-log-select-pick: Select from Log
magit-log-select-quit: Select from Log
magit-log-set-default-arguments: Refreshing Logs
magit-log-toggle-commit-limit: Log Buffer
magit-margin-popup: Log Margin
magit-merge: Merging
magit-merge: Merging
magit-merge-abort: Merging
magit-merge-editmsg: Merging
magit-merge-nocommit: Merging
magit-merge-popup: Merging
magit-merge-preview: Merging
magit-mode-bury-buffer: Quitting Windows
magit-notes-edit: Notes
magit-notes-merge: Notes
magit-notes-merge-abort: Notes
magit-notes-merge-commit: Notes
magit-notes-popup: Notes
magit-notes-prune: Notes
magit-notes-remove: Notes
magit-notes-set-display-refs: Notes
magit-notes-set-ref: Notes
magit-patch-popup: Creating and Sending Patches
magit-pop-revision-stack: Editing Commit Messages
magit-process: Viewing Git Output
magit-process-kill: Viewing Git Output
magit-pull: Pulling
magit-pull-from-pushremote: Pulling
magit-pull-from-upstream: Pulling
magit-pull-popup: Pulling
magit-push: Pushing
magit-push-current: Pushing
magit-push-current-to-pushremote: Pushing
magit-push-current-to-upstream: Pushing
magit-push-implicitly args: Pushing
magit-push-matching: Pushing
magit-push-popup: Pushing
magit-push-refspecs: Pushing
magit-push-tag: Pushing
magit-push-tags: Pushing
magit-push-to-remote remote args: Pushing
magit-rebase: Rebasing
magit-rebase-abort: Rebasing
magit-rebase-autosquash: Rebasing
magit-rebase-continue: Rebasing
magit-rebase-edit: Rebasing
magit-rebase-edit-commit: Rebasing
magit-rebase-interactive: Rebasing
magit-rebase-onto-pushremote: Rebasing
magit-rebase-onto-upstream: Rebasing
magit-rebase-popup: Rebasing
magit-rebase-reword-commit: Rebasing
magit-rebase-skip: Rebasing
magit-rebase-subset: Rebasing
magit-reflog-current: Reflog
magit-reflog-head: Reflog
magit-reflog-other: Reflog
magit-refresh: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers
magit-refresh-all: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers
magit-remote-add: Remotes
magit-remote-popup: Remotes
magit-remote-remove: Remotes
magit-remote-rename: Remotes
magit-remote-set-url: Remotes
magit-request-pull: Creating and Sending Patches
magit-reset: Resetting
magit-reset-hard: Resetting
magit-reset-head: Resetting
magit-reset-index: Staging and Unstaging
magit-reset-index: Resetting
magit-reset-soft: Resetting
magit-reverse: Applying
magit-reverse-in-index: Staging and Unstaging
magit-revert: Reverting
magit-revert-no-commit: Reverting
magit-revert-popup: Reverting
magit-run-git-gui: Running Git Manually
magit-run-gitk: Running Git Manually
magit-run-gitk-all: Running Git Manually
magit-run-gitk-branches: Running Git Manually
magit-run-popup: Running Git Manually
magit-section-backward: Section Movement
magit-section-backward-siblings: Section Movement
magit-section-cycle: Section Visibility
magit-section-cycle-diffs: Section Visibility
magit-section-cycle-global: Section Visibility
magit-section-forward: Section Movement
magit-section-forward-siblings: Section Movement
magit-section-hide: Section Visibility
magit-section-hide-children: Section Visibility
magit-section-show: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-children: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-headings: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-1: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-1-all: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-2: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-2-all: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-3: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-3-all: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-4: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-level-4-all: Section Visibility
magit-section-toggle: Section Visibility
magit-section-toggle-children: Section Visibility
magit-section-up: Section Movement
magit-sequence-abort: Cherry Picking
magit-sequence-abort: Reverting
magit-sequence-continue: Cherry Picking
magit-sequence-continue: Reverting
magit-sequence-skip: Cherry Picking
magit-sequence-skip: Reverting
magit-shell-command: Running Git Manually
magit-shell-command-topdir: Running Git Manually
magit-show-commit: Diffing
magit-show-commit: Blaming
magit-show-refs: References Buffer
magit-show-refs-current: References Buffer
magit-show-refs-head: References Buffer
magit-show-refs-popup: References Buffer
magit-snapshot: Stashing
magit-snapshot-index: Stashing
magit-snapshot-worktree: Stashing
magit-stage: Staging and Unstaging
magit-stage-file: Staging from File-Visiting Buffers
magit-stage-file: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-stage-modified: Staging and Unstaging
magit-stash: Stashing
magit-stash-apply: Stashing
magit-stash-branch: Stashing
magit-stash-clear: Stashing
magit-stash-drop: Stashing
magit-stash-format-patch: Stashing
magit-stash-index: Stashing
magit-stash-keep-index: Stashing
magit-stash-list: Stashing
magit-stash-pop: Stashing
magit-stash-popup: Stashing
magit-stash-show: Diffing
magit-stash-show: Stashing
magit-stash-worktree: Stashing
magit-status: Status Buffer
magit-submodule-add: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-fetch: Fetching
magit-submodule-fetch: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-init: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-init: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-popup: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-setup: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-sync: Submodule Popup
magit-submodule-update: Submodule Popup
magit-subtree-add: Subtree
magit-subtree-add-commit: Subtree
magit-subtree-merge: Subtree
magit-subtree-pull: Subtree
magit-subtree-push: Subtree
magit-subtree-split: Subtree
magit-tag: Tagging
magit-tag-delete: Tagging
magit-tag-popup: Tagging
magit-tag-prune: Tagging
magit-toggle-buffer-lock: Modes and Buffers
magit-toggle-margin: Refreshing Logs
magit-toggle-margin: Log Margin
magit-toggle-margin-details: Log Margin
magit-tree-popup: Subtree
magit-unstage: Staging and Unstaging
magit-unstage-all: Staging and Unstaging
magit-unstage-file: Staging from File-Visiting Buffers
magit-unstage-file: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-version: Git Executable
magit-version: Debugging Tools
magit-visit-ref: References Buffer
magit-wip-commit: Wip Modes
magit-wip-log: Wip Modes
magit-wip-log-current: Wip Modes

S
scroll-down: Diff Buffer
scroll-up: Diff Buffer

W
with-editor-cancel: Editing Commit Messages
with-editor-cancel: Editing Rebase Sequences
with-editor-debug: Debugging Tools
with-editor-finish: Editing Commit Messages
with-editor-finish: Editing Rebase Sequences

Jump to:   A   F   G   I   M   S   W  

Next: , Previous: , Up: Top   [Contents][Index]

Appendix E Function Index

Jump to:   A   G   I   M   W  
Index Entry  Section

A
auto-revert-mode: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers

G
git-commit-check-style-conventions: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-propertize-diff: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-save-message: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-setup-changelog-support: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-turn-on-auto-fill: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-turn-on-flyspell: Editing Commit Messages

I
ido-enter-magit-status: Status Buffer

M
magit-add-section-hook: Section Hooks
magit-after-save-refresh-status: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers
magit-branch-orphan: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-popup: The Branch Config Popup
magit-builtin-completing-read: Completion and Confirmation
magit-call-git: Calling Git for Effect
magit-call-process: Calling Git for Effect
magit-cancel-section: Creating Sections
magit-current-section: Section Selection
magit-define-section-jumper: Creating Sections
magit-diff-scope: Matching Sections
magit-diff-type: Matching Sections
magit-display-buffer: Switching Buffers
magit-display-buffer-fullcolumn-most-v1: Switching Buffers
magit-display-buffer-fullframe-status-topleft-v1: Switching Buffers
magit-display-buffer-fullframe-status-v1: Switching Buffers
magit-display-buffer-same-window-except-diff-v1: Switching Buffers
magit-display-buffer-traditional: Switching Buffers
magit-generate-buffer-name-default-function: Naming Buffers
magit-get-section: Matching Sections
magit-git: Calling Git for Effect
magit-git-exit-code: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-failure: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-false: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-insert: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-items: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-lines: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-str: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-string: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-success: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-true: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-wash: Calling Git for Effect
magit-hunk-set-window-start: Section Movement
magit-ido-completing-read: Completion and Confirmation
magit-insert-am-sequence: Status Sections
magit-insert-bisect-log: Status Sections
magit-insert-bisect-output: Status Sections
magit-insert-bisect-rest: Status Sections
magit-insert-diff-filter-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-error-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-head-branch-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-heading: Creating Sections
magit-insert-local-branches: References Sections
magit-insert-merge-log: Status Sections
magit-insert-modules-unpulled-from-pushremote: Status Sections
magit-insert-modules-unpulled-from-upstream: Status Sections
magit-insert-modules-unpushed-to-pushremote: Status Sections
magit-insert-modules-unpushed-to-upstream: Status Sections
magit-insert-push-branch-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-rebase-sequence: Status Sections
magit-insert-recent-commits: Status Sections
magit-insert-remote-branches: References Sections
magit-insert-remote-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-repo-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-section: Creating Sections
magit-insert-sequencer-sequence: Status Sections
magit-insert-staged-changes: Status Sections
magit-insert-stashes: Status Sections
magit-insert-status-headers: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-submodules: Status Sections
magit-insert-submodules: Listing Submodules
magit-insert-tags: References Sections
magit-insert-tags-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-tracked-files: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpulled-cherries: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpulled-from-pushremote: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpulled-from-upstream: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpulled-or-recent-commits: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpushed-cherries: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpushed-to-pushremote: Status Sections
magit-insert-unpushed-to-upstream: Status Sections
magit-insert-unstaged-changes: Status Sections
magit-insert-untracked-files: Status Sections
magit-insert-upstream-branch-header: Status Header Sections
magit-insert-user-header: Status Header Sections
magit-list-repositories: Repository List
magit-list-submodules: Listing Submodules
magit-log-maybe-show-more-commits: Section Movement
magit-log-maybe-update-blob-buffer: Section Movement
magit-log-maybe-update-revision-buffer: Section Movement
magit-maybe-set-dedicated: Switching Buffers
magit-mode-display-buffer: Refreshing Buffers
magit-mode-quit-window: Quitting Windows
magit-mode-setup: Refreshing Buffers
magit-push-implicitly: Pushing
magit-push-to-remote: Pushing
magit-region-sections: Section Selection
magit-region-values: Section Selection
magit-repolist-column-ident: Repository List
magit-repolist-column-path: Repository List
magit-repolist-column-unpulled-from-pushremote: Repository List
magit-repolist-column-unpulled-from-upstream: Repository List
magit-repolist-column-unpushed-to-pushremote: Repository List
magit-repolist-column-unpushed-to-upstream: Repository List
magit-repolist-column-version: Repository List
magit-restore-window-configuration: Quitting Windows
magit-revert-buffers: Editing Commit Messages
magit-run-git: Calling Git for Effect
magit-run-git-async: Calling Git for Effect
magit-run-git-with-editor: Calling Git for Effect
magit-run-git-with-input: Calling Git for Effect
magit-run-git-with-logfile: Calling Git for Effect
magit-save-window-configuration: Switching Buffers
magit-section-case: Matching Sections
magit-section-hide: Section Visibility
magit-section-hide-children: Section Visibility
magit-section-ident: Matching Sections
magit-section-match: Matching Sections
magit-section-set-window-start: Section Movement
magit-section-show: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-children: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-headings: Section Visibility
magit-section-toggle-children: Section Visibility
magit-section-when: Matching Sections
magit-start-git: Calling Git for Effect
magit-start-process: Calling Git for Effect
magit-status-maybe-update-blob-buffer: Section Movement
magit-status-maybe-update-revision-buffer: Section Movement
magit-wip-log: Wip Modes
magit-wip-log-current: Wip Modes

W
with-editor-usage-message: Editing Commit Messages

Jump to:   A   G   I   M   W  

Previous: , Up: Top   [Contents][Index]

Appendix F Variable Index

Jump to:   A   B   G   M   P   R  
Index Entry  Section

A
auto-revert-buffer-list-filter: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
auto-revert-interval: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
auto-revert-stop-on-user-input: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
auto-revert-use-notify: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
auto-revert-verbose: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers

B
branch.autoSetupMerge: The Branch Config Popup
branch.autoSetupRebase: The Branch Config Popup
branch.NAME.description: The Branch Config Popup
branch.NAME.merge: The Branch Config Popup
branch.NAME.pushRemote: The Branch Config Popup
branch.NAME.rebase: The Branch Config Popup
branch.NAME.remote: The Branch Config Popup

G
git-commit-fill-column: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-finish-query-functions: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-known-pseudo-headers: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-major-mode: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-setup-hook: Editing Commit Messages
git-commit-summary-max-length: Editing Commit Messages
git-rebase-auto-advance: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-confirm-cancel: Editing Rebase Sequences
git-rebase-show-instructions: Editing Rebase Sequences
global-auto-revert-mode: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers

M
magit-auto-revert-immediately: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
magit-auto-revert-mode: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
magit-auto-revert-tracked-only: Automatic Reverting of File-Visiting Buffers
magit-bisect-show-graph: Bisecting
magit-blame-goto-chunk-hook: Blaming
magit-blame-heading-format: Blaming
magit-blame-show-headings: Blaming
magit-blame-time-format: Blaming
magit-branch-adjust-remote-upstream-alist: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-popup-show-variables: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-prefer-remote-upstream: The Branch Popup
magit-branch-read-upstream-first: The Branch Popup
magit-buffer-name-format: Naming Buffers
magit-bury-buffer-function: Quitting Windows
magit-cherry-margin: Cherries
magit-clone-set-remote.pushDefault: Repository Setup
magit-commit-ask-to-stage: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-extend-override-date: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-reword-override-date: Initiating a Commit
magit-commit-squash-confirm: Initiating a Commit
magit-completing-read-function: Completion and Confirmation
magit-diff-buffer-file-locked: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-diff-hide-trailing-cr-characters: Diff Options
magit-diff-highlight-hunk-region-functions: Diff Options
magit-diff-highlight-indentation: Diff Options
magit-diff-highlight-trailing: Diff Options
magit-diff-paint-whitespace: Diff Options
magit-diff-refine-hunk: Diff Options
magit-diff-unmarked-lines-keep-foreground: Diff Options
magit-diff-visit-previous-blob: Diff Buffer
magit-display-buffer-function: Switching Buffers
magit-display-buffer-noselect: Switching Buffers
magit-ediff-dwim-show-on-hunks: Ediffing
magit-ediff-quit-hook: Ediffing
magit-ediff-show-stash-with-index: Ediffing
magit-file-mode: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-generate-buffer-name-function: Naming Buffers
magit-git-debug: Viewing Git Output
magit-git-debug: Getting a Value from Git
magit-git-executable: Git Executable
magit-git-global-arguments: Global Git Arguments
magit-list-refs-sortby: Completion and Confirmation
magit-log-auto-more: Log Buffer
magit-log-buffer-file-locked: Minor Mode for Buffers Visiting Files
magit-log-margin: Log Margin
magit-log-section-args: Status Options
magit-log-section-commit-count: Status Sections
magit-log-select-margin: Select from Log
magit-log-show-refname-after-summary: Log Buffer
magit-no-confirm: Completion and Confirmation
magit-pop-revision-stack-format: Editing Commit Messages
magit-post-display-buffer-hook: Switching Buffers
magit-pre-display-buffer-hook: Switching Buffers
magit-prefer-remote-upstream: The Branch Config Popup
magit-process-raise-error: Calling Git for Effect
magit-push-current-set-remote-if-missing: Pushing
magit-reflog-margin: Reflog
magit-refresh-args: Refreshing Buffers
magit-refresh-buffer-hook: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers
magit-refresh-function: Refreshing Buffers
magit-refresh-status-buffer: Automatic Refreshing of Magit Buffers
magit-refs-indent-cherry-lines: References Buffer
magit-refs-local-branch-format: References Buffer
magit-refs-margin: References Buffer
magit-refs-margin-for-tags: References Buffer
magit-refs-remote-branch-format: References Buffer
magit-refs-sections-hook: References Sections
magit-refs-show-commit-count: References Buffer
magit-refs-tags-format: References Buffer
magit-remote-add-set-remote.pushDefault: Remotes
magit-repolist-columns: Repository List
magit-repository-directories: Status Buffer
magit-repository-directories-depth: Status Buffer
magit-revision-insert-related-refs: Revision Buffer
magit-revision-show-gravatar: Revision Buffer
magit-root-section: Matching Sections
magit-save-repository-buffers: Automatic Saving of File-Visiting Buffers
magit-section-movement-hook: Section Movement
magit-section-set-visibility-hook: Section Visibility
magit-section-show-child-count: Section Options
magit-shell-command-verbose-prompt: Running Git Manually
magit-stashes-margin: Stashing
magit-status-headers-hook: Status Header Sections
magit-status-margin: Status Options
magit-status-refresh-hook: Status Options
magit-status-sections-hook: Status Sections
magit-submodule-list-columns: Listing Submodules
magit-this-process: Calling Git for Effect
magit-uniquify-buffer-names: Naming Buffers
magit-unstage-committed: Staging and Unstaging
magit-update-other-window-delay: Section Movement
magit-visit-ref-behavior: References Buffer
magit-wip-after-apply-mode: Wip Modes
magit-wip-after-apply-mode-lighter: Wip Modes
magit-wip-after-save-local-mode-lighter: Wip Modes
magit-wip-after-save-mode: Wip Modes
magit-wip-before-change-mode: Wip Modes
magit-wip-before-change-mode-lighter: Wip Modes
magit-wip-namespace: Wip Modes

P
pull.rebase: The Branch Config Popup

R
remote.pushDefault: The Branch Config Popup

Jump to:   A   B   G   M   P   R  

Footnotes

(1)

The patch-id is a hash of the changes introduced by commit. It differs from hash of the commit itself, which is a hash of the result of applying that change (i.e. the resulting trees and blobs) as well as author and committer information, the commit message, and the hashes of the parents of the commit. The patch-id hash on the other hand is created only from the added and removed lines, even line numbers and whitespace are created when calculating the hash. The patch-ids of two commits can be used to answer the question "Do these two commits make the same change?".

(2)

https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/bug-gnu-emacs/2017-04/msg00201.html

(3)

https://github.com/d12frosted/homebrew-emacs-plus

(4)

https://gist.githubusercontent.com/aaronjensen/f45894ddf431ecbff78b1bcf533d3e6b/raw/6a5cd7f57341aba673234348d8b0d2e776f86719/Emacs-25-OS-X-use-vfork.patch